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Vol. 11, No. 15Whole #422April 15, 2009Edited by Michael J. Leclerc and Valerie Beaudraultenews@nehgs.org
Greetings from the New England Historic Genealogical Society! This newsletter has been sent to people who asked to receive it. If you would like to unsubscribe or change your email address, please click on the link at the bottom of the email and follow the instructions provided.
NEHGS collects, preserves, and interprets materials to document and make accessible the histories of families in America.
Contents:* The History of the Income Tax* NEHGS at NERGC* Research Recommendations: Internet Archive* Name Origins* New On NewEnglandAncestors.org* Spotlight: Civil War Prison Records* Stories of Interest* Question of the Day* Best-Selling Titles* Upcoming Education Programs* NEHGS Contact Information
The History of the Income Tax
The history of the income tax in the United States dates back to the the Revenue Act of 1861, when Congress needed to raise funds for the Civil War.The 16th Amendment to the Constitution, passed 1909 and ratified in 1913, authorized the federal government to tax individuals. The first Form 1040 was distributed that year: a simple, four-page form (including one of instructions) that you can view on the IRS website at http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-utl/1913.pdf.
You can read more a history of the income tax by the Library of Congress Business Reference Services at http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/hottopic/irs_history.html. A more detailed account, but written in an easy-to-read style, is available from the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Tracing the history of taxation from colonial times to the 21st century, it is available at http://www.treas.gov/education/fact-sheets/taxes/ustax.shtml.
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NEHGS at NERGC
Join NEHGS at the tenth New England Regional Genealogical Conference, which will be held April 22–26 at the New Hampshire Expo Center in Manchester, New Hampshire. Staff members David Lambert, Judy Lucey, and D. Joshua Taylor will be making presentations during the conference, and a number of other staff members will be at our booth in the exhibit hall. Please stop by and say hello.
For more information about the conference, visit http://www.nergc.org/.
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Research Recommendations: Internet Archiveby Michael J. Leclerc
Last week I discussed the Wayback Machine, run by the Internet Archive (IA), a nonprofit organization founded to preserve access to digital materials. This week I would like to share another aspect of the Internet Archive that is very useful for genealogists — books.
The Open-Access Text Archive contains more than a million books, all fully-searchable and available in a variety of formats. The Text Archive is sub-divided into American Libraries, Canadian Libraries, Universal Library, Project Gutenberg, Biodiversity Heritage Library, Children’s Library, and Additional Collections.
You will find numerous compiled genealogies, local histories, social histories, and compiled vital records among these collections. You can search the collections by title, and whithin each title you can search for names, places, and other keywords. You will find typical cataloguing information for each book, as well as information on copyright status, and the name of the digitizing sponsor and the book contributor.
You can view books in a number of different formats. PDFs are available in color as well as black and white. The Flip Book view allows you to see the images in a book format, and page through them as you would a paper text. The beta version of the Flip Book view allows you to view a bigger, clearer version. Another option is to view the book in the proprietary DjVu software from LizardTech. Finally, you can look at a text file, which can be messy and difficult to read. All versions are fully-searchable, and you can download the PDFs to your computer for future viewing.
When looking for family names on an Internet search engine, you may find results that direct you to the Text Archive. You will recognize these results instantly by the distinctive maroon box that encloses the text. The results are usually displayed in the Text view, which can be difficult to read. Click on the link for other formats, and you can select one of the other viewers that makes it easier to read.
Check out the Text Archive at www.archive.org/details/texts.
Name Originsby Julie Helen Otto
CICERO (m): The name borne by the great Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero is derived from the Latin for chickpea, an unflattering reference to a forgotten ancestor’s facial wart(s).
New On NewEnglandAncestors.org
Fortune Hunters in Australiawww.newenglandancestors.org/database_search/fortune_hunters_australia.asp
This database iwas created from research performed by Australian authors Denise McMahon and Christine Wild. Their CD, American Fever, Australian Gold: American and Canadian involvement in Australia’s Gold Rush, details the history of 176 fortune seekers who emigrated from America or Canada to Australia to seek riches during the initial gold rush in that country. The CD was compiled from official records, archives, contemporary newspapers, and diaries. It contains material from letters written to or from the fortune seekers, from the gold fields within Australia, or from onboard ship. This database also includes information the individul's native place, parentage, year of birth, and the year in which the individual sailed.
The Connecticut Nutmegger, Volumes 12–16www.newenglandancestors.org/database_search/Nutmegger_CT.asp
This week, we continue the presentation of a collaborative effort of The Connecticut Society of Genealogists and New England Historic Genealogical Society – additional searchable volumes of The Connecticut Nutmegger.
The Connecticut Nutmegger has served as the “journal of record” for the Connecticut Society of Genealogists, Inc. (CSG) for forty years. During this time it has captured a wealth of information for genealogists. Vital records, probate records, bible records, headstone records, memorials and other useful records have been published and made readily accessible for genealogical research. Well-documented family histories and genealogical articles, covering hundreds of families — mainly with Connecticut ties — have been presented. Published articles include commentary on and corrections to previously published family lines, vital records and town histories. Book reviews, research tips, queries and other valuable tools for genealogists have been presented.
Additional volumes will be added to this database over the next year; this week we present volumes 12–16. Additional sets of five volumes will be added periodically. The database search facility is very similar to that of the Register and allows searches by last and/or first name, or by subject keywords. Images of the original pages may be seen from the search results page. It is also possible to browse the pages of the Nutmegger by entering a Year (or volume number) and a page number. This third installment indexes 11,322 names, 304 subject records and 3,760 pages.
Spotlight: Civil War Prison Recordsby Valerie Beaudrault
Alton in the Civil Warwww.altonweb.com/history/civilwar/confed/index.html
Located on the Missouri border, about fifteen miles north of St. Louis, Alton is a city in Madison County, Illinois. A prison was opened there in 1833 as the first Illinois State Penitentiary. The state penitentiary was closed in 1860. In December 1861, Major General Henry Halleck, Commander of the Department of the Missouri (a division of the U.S. Army), ordered Lieutenant-Colonel James B. McPherson to inspect the closed penitentiary. Colonel McPherson reported that the prison could be converted to a military prison for up to 1,750 prisoners, which would ease overcrowding in two St. Louis prisons. The first prisoners arrived at the Alton Federal Military Prison on February 9, 1862. The prison closed on July 7, 1865; the remaining prisoners were either released or sent to St. Louis.
Nearly 12,000 Confederate prisoners were held at the Alton Federal Military Prison. Different types of prisoners were housed there. Confederate soldiers made up the largest group. A number of women were imprisoned there for “treasonable actions, making anti-Union statements, aiding an escaped Confederate, etc.” Bushwhackers or guerillas were also imprisoned for committing acts against the government, such as burning bridges and vandalizing railroads.
The database contains 1,352 records of prisoners from fourteen different states who died at the Alton Federal Military Prison. Researchers can browse through the lists (alphabetical by last name) or they can run keyword searches of the database. The data fields in the database include the name of the deceased; rank; company; state; date and place of capture; date of death; cause of death; and place of burial.
In addition to the database, the website resources includehistorical information on Alton in the Civil War.
Gratiot Street Prisonwww.civilwarstlouis.com/Gratiot/gratiot.htm
Across the Illinois-Missouri state border, about 15 miles from Alton, is the city of St. Louis, where the Union army operated the Gratiot Street Military Prison. It held Confederate prisoners of war, spies, guerillas, civilians suspected of disloyalty, and Federal soldiers accused of crimes or misbehavior, such as drunkenness, theft and even murder.
The lists of prisoners that make up the database have been transcribed from a Gratiot Street Prison ledger. The 646 individuals in the database account for only a small portion of the numbers of people who were imprisoned at the Gratiot Street Prison. The names are listed in the order in which they entered the prison beginning in August 1863. You can search for a particular individual by using"find" function under "edit" of your browser. There is additional information for some of the prisoners; click on the name link to access more data.
The data fields in the transcription lists numbers 1, 2, and 3, and include name; rank; regiment; company; residence; where captured; when captured; height; age; eye and hair color; and remarks. When a prisoner was a civilian, the abbreviation “citz” appears in the ‘Rank’ field. The data fields for the transcription list of women and children include name; residence; where arrested; when arrested; when arrived at Gratiot; when released; and remarks.
Biographies of a few of these individuals have also been included, as well as answers to a number of frequently asked questions and “Then & Now” photographs of the prison location. In addition, researchers will find the Gratiot Journal, an account of the prison with notes on people and events, covering the period from January 1863 through April 1864. There are a number of articles written by Howard Mann, who contributed tales of the Tenth Kansas Infantry. The Gratiot Street Prison pages are part of a larger website titled Civil War St. Louis. Click on the Return to Civil War St. Louis link to access this website.
Stories of Interest
God’s Little AcreThis website is dedicated to a colonial African burial ground in Newport, Rhode Island. In addition to the names of those interred (and images of their gravestones), the site provides a detailed history of Newport and the slave trade, as well as the names of free African Americans in the city during colonial times.
Norwalk Man’s Relative Saw History UnfoldGeorge E. Dixon, great-great-grandfather of Ed Isaacs of Norwalk, Connecticut, was in the Army and on guard duty at the trial of the conspirators who assassinated Abraham Lincoln.
Safeguarding Your Research Against Tech-Savvy ThievesColumnist Diana Lynn Tibert discusses how to keep your hard work from being spread all over the Internet.
Question of the Day
Each day (M-F), David Lambert, the NEHGS Online Genealogist, will post an interesting "Question of the Day" on http:///www.NewEnglandAncestors.org to share with you. We hope these questions will be valuable and beneficial in your research. Check back daily for new questions and answers or read through our archives. What follows is a question asked this week. You are invited to submit research questions to David Allen Lambert at email@example.com. Please note that he will make every effort to reply to each message, but will respond on a first come, first-served basis. In some cases, he may need to refer individuals to the NEHGS Research Service for more in-depth research services for a fee. You can view more questions of the day at www.newenglandancestors.org/research/services/7389.asp.
Question:The Massachusetts marriage indexes have me a little confused. My ancestor and his wife were listed in the index in three communities. Why would they be listed in so many places?
Answer:This confusion arises from time to time with marriage indexes. In the case of your relatives, the groom was from Braintree, the bride was from Milton, and they were married in Boston. The communities of both the bride and groom recorded the marriage, and the city clerk of Boston recorded the marriage because it occurred within the city limits. My suggestion would be to examine each entry, since the information each town clerk recorded may have.
Have you picked up your copies of two of NEHGS’ hottest selling titles? Now available:
Ancestors of American Presidents, 2nd Edition, by Gary Boyd Roberts ($34.95 plus shipping)www.newenglandancestors.org/45_7151.asp
A Guide to Massachusetts Cemeteries, 2nd Edition, by David Allen Lambert ($17.95/$16.16 for NEHGS members plus shipping)www.newenglandancestors.org/45_7150.asp
You can order online at www.newenglandancestors.org/store.asp or by calling toll free at 1-888-296-3447.
Did you know that the NEHGS Sales Department offers library-quality copies of over 10,000 rare and out-of-print books? Some titles ordered by recent customers include:
Swedish Settlements on the Delaware, 1638-1664 (Item P5-PA0024H)Loyalists and Land Settlements in Nova Scotia (Item P5-NS0005H)Nathaniel Whiting of Dedham, Massachusetts, 1641, and Five Generations of His Descendants (Item P4-H27315)Genealogy of the Wharton Family of Philadelphia, 1664-1880 (Item P4-H27066)
You can search the entire Classic Reprints catalog online at www.newenglandancestors.org/store.asp.
Upcoming Education Programs
Each year the Society presents a number of dynamic lectures, seminars, and tours for genealogists and the general public. Programs are held at 99 Newbury Street unless otherwise indicated. For more information, please contact Ryan Woods at 617-226-1226 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
You can view a full listing of upcoming programs: www.newenglandancestors.org/events/6816.asp.
Seminars and ToursCorrection: The dates of Come Home to New England are incorrectly stated in the recently mailed Education Programs and Research Tours brochure. The program dates are June 22–27, 2009 and August 10–15, 2009.
English Family History TourSunday, May 17–Sunday, May 24, 2009The English Family History Tour to London is an essential research trip for genealogists with British ancestry. Based at the Society of Genealogists (SoG), researchers will be offered daily classes providing historical context and research methodology tips for working with the extensive record collection of the SoG. The library's holdings include more than 120,000 books and microforms featuring census indexes; family histories; biographies; service, professional, and trade directories; an apprenticeship index (1710-1774); school and university lists; will and marriage license indexes; runs of Burke's Peerage and Landed Gentry; a large number of manuscripts arranged by surname; and a miscellaneous card index of three million references. Registration fees: (includes seven nights' lodging at the Holiday Inn Bloomsbury) Single, $4,850; Double, $4,550 per person; Double with non-participant, $5,550; Commuter, $2,300 (no lodging).
Come Home to New EnglandMonday, June 22–Saturday, June 27, 2009The staff of the New England Historic Genealogical Society invites you to participate in our classic intensive week-long program, "Come Home to New England." Research your roots with expert assistance at the extensive NEHGS library, one of the premier genealogical facilities in the world. Whether you are a first-time participant or have enjoyed this program in the past, you are sure to benefit from a visit to our library and extended time with our staff of professional genealogists as they welcome you "home" to New England. Throughout the week of guided research, you will have the opportunity for one-on-one consultations, daily lectures and special extended library hours.Registration fees: $750 per registrant; $125 per non-researching guest.
Newfoundland Research Tour Sunday, July 12–Sunday, July 19, 2009Discover your Newfoundland family history with NEHGS in the provincial capital of St. John's. Join expert genealogists at St. John's premier facilities, including the Provincial Archives — "The Rooms," the Maritime History Archive at Memorial University, the Registry of Deeds, and A.C. Hunter Library. Together these repositories hold vital records; church records; all census records; voter lists; probate; land grants; the Keith Matthews collection (list of all people who worked in fishery from 16th century to 1850); ship lists; crew lists; logbooks; Irish and English parish records; and original Newfoundland newspapers.Registration fees: (includes seven nights' lodging at the Fairmont Hotel) Single ocean view room, $3,250; Single city view room, $3,100; Double, $2,700 per person; Double with non-participant, $3,550; Commuter, $850 (no lodging).
Come Home to New EnglandMonday, August 10–Saturday, August 15, 2009The staff of the New England Historic Genealogical Society invites you to participate in our classic intensive week-long program, "Come Home to New England." Research your roots with expert assistance at the extensive NEHGS library, one of the premier genealogical facilities in the world. Whether you are a first-time participant or have enjoyed this program in the past, you are sure to benefit from a visit to our library and extended time with our staff of professional genealogists as they welcome you "home" to New England. Throughout the week of guided research, you will have the opportunity for one-on-one consultations, daily lectures and special extended library hours.Registration fees: $750 per registrant; $125 per non-researching guest.
Scottish Family History Research TourSunday, September 20–Sunday, September 27, 2009Discover the origins of your Scottish ancestors with the inaugural NEHGS research tour to Edinburgh. This week-long intensive research program will be based out of Scotland's two premier genealogical repositories, The National Archives of Scotland (NAS) and the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS). Together these neighboring repositories house the major collections of government and vital records for more than 700 years of Scottish history. The main holdings of NAS include records created by the government of Scotland beginning in the twelfth century, including records of the crown and parliament; legal registers; court documents; and records of the Church of Scotland. Vital records, including births, marriages, and deaths from 1855 and parish registers from 1553 to 1854, are maintained by the GROS. Program registration includes lodging at the Sheraton Grand Hotel and opening and closing dinners. Registration fees: (includes seven nights' lodging at the Sheraton Grand Hotel) Single, $4,750; Double, $4,450 per person; Double with non-participant, $5,350; Commuter, $2,300 (no lodging).
For more information about NEHGS programs, visit http://www.newenglandancestors.org/programs_events.asp or email mailto:email@example.com.
NEHGS Contact Information
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