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  • Good for What Ails You: Vignettes from a Colonial Diary

    Lawrence Hammond with some notes by Julie Helen Otto

    A Receipt for Comforting the Head & Braine

    Take Rosemary & Sage of both sorts of both, with flowers of Rosemary if to be had, & Borage with ye flowers. Infuse in Muscadine or in good Canary [wine] 3 dayes, drink it often.

    The fat of a Hedg-Hog roasted, drop it into the Eare, is an Excellent remedy against deafnes.

    Also a Clove of Garlick, make holes in it, dip it in Honey, & put it into the Eare at night going to bed, first on one side, then on the other for 8 or 9 dayes together, keeping in ye Eares black wooll.

    An Excellent Water for ye Eyes

    Take Sage, Fennel, Vervain, Bettony, Eyebright, Celandine, Cinquefoyle, Herb of grass, pimpernel, Steep them in White wine one night, distill all together, & use the Water to wash the Eyes.

    The juice of Eyebright is Excellent for ye Sight.

    Another Water for ye Eyes

    Take good White wine, infuse Eyebright in it 3 dayes, then Seeth it with a little Rosemary in it, drink it often, it is most Excellent to restore & Strengthen the Sight.  Also Eate of the powder of Eyebright in a new layd Egge rare roasted every morning.

    A Medicine to Recover ye Colour & Complexion When Lost by Sickness.

    Take two quarts of Rosewater red, take five pounds of clean White Wheat, put it into ye Rose-water, Let it Lie till the Wheate hath soaked up all ye Liquor, then take the Wheat & beat it in a mortar all to mash.

    Nettle Seeds bruised & drank in White Wine is Excellent for the Gravel [kidney stones].

    For Hoarsnes.

    Take 3 or 4 figs, cleave them in two, put in a pretty quantity of Ginger in powder, roast them & Eate them often.

    For the Palsey.

    Take a pint of good Mustard, dry it in ye Oven till it be as thick as a pudding, then dry it over a Chafing dish of Coales till it may be beaton to powder mix with it a hand-full of powder of Bettony leaves, put som Sugar to it & Eate it every morning.

    For the Megrum [Migraine].

    Mugwort & Sage a handfull of each, Camomel & Gentian a good quantity, boyle it in Honey, & apply it behind & on both sides  [of] ye head very warm, & in 3 or 4 times it will take it [the headache] quite away.

    From a transcription of the Diary of Lawrence Hammond (1677-1694), edited by Samuel A. Green for the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society (2nd series), 7(1892): 144-72 (henceforth “Diary”); an additional short passage, describing a Boston fire and reprinted below, was published several years later in volume 13 (1899-1900):411.  The original diary is at the Massachusetts Historical Society.

    Lawrence Hammond (born probably after 1630, died 29 August 1699) “was made a freeman of the [Massachusetts Bay] Colony 23 May 1666, and for several years was chosen a Deputy to the General Court from Charlestown.  In 1686 and several following years he was Recorder of Middlesex County, [with duties corresponding] very nearly to those of the present Registers of Deeds and Probate combined.  He took an active interest in military matters, and was a Lieutenant and the Captain of a foot company in Charlestown” (Diary, p. 145, from Dr. Green’s introduction).

    Lawrence Hammond was admitted as an inhabitant of Charlestown 25 (5) 1661, and entered into full communion with the First Church there 29 (4)1662.  Named lieutenant of the Charlestown foot company 27 May 1668, and promoted to captain 12 October 1669, Capt. Hammond later cared neither for Royal Governor Edmund Andros (1686-89), nor the Massachusetts government which had replaced him without authority from London.  During the heat of 1689 he was ordered to surrender his captaincy, which he refused to do, and was briefly confined to his house — but was later reconfirmed in the foot company.  He removed to Boston about 1692, and was for a time deputy collector of customs.  Within a month of his death Lawrence Hammond was one of a commission investigating the depredations of the pirate Captain Kidd, and rendering an account of Kidd’s seized gold, silver and other goods.

    Besides taking a role in politics, Lawrence Hammond was an active merchant in late seventeenth century Charlestown and Boston.  He had extensive dealings with the West Indies, namely Nevis and Mountserrat, and probably made a large part of his profit from what is now called the “triangular trade” of sugar, slaves and English money between New England, the West Indies and Africa; the administration of his estate shows strong ties between New England merchants and those in the West Indies and London (see the companion article by Janet I. DeLorey and Marjorie Marsh Quigg, in this issue).  The “triangle trade” was lucrative, but not without its dangers; after a long voyage and almost within sight of home, Capt. Hammond’s eldest son Francis — whose birth had cost his mother’s life — fell to his death from the ship’s rigging, into Nantasket Bay.  The cost in life and suffering to the slaves, these traders’ human cargo, can of course never be estimated.

    Capt. Lawrence Hammond bore no known relation to the large William Hammond family of Lavenham, Suffolk and Watertown, Massachusetts.  Instead he has been alleged (by E.E. Salisbury, quoting the very unreliable Charles H. Browning) to be the son of Col. Maynwaring Hammond, known royalist refugee [150] to Virginia, and other records call Col. Maynwaring Hammond the brother and heir of a Francis Hammond.  Lawrence named two sons Francis, possibly for this Francis Hammond or (more probably) for Massachusetts Deputy Governor Francis Willoughby, a kinsman, whose widow became Capt. Hammond’s third wife.  Gov. Willoughby's father, Naval Commissioner William Willoughby, then of Portsmouth, Hants., in his will dated 1 August 1650, proved at London 6 May 1651, left £20 to “my cousin” Lawrence Hammond, “to be paid him when he shall be twenty years of age”; the will was witnessed by Lawrence Hammond (whether the legatee, or an older kinsman, is uncertain) and John Greene (also a legatee) — both names later associated with Charlestown. Thus Capt. Lawrence Hammond was born sometime after 1630.

    The Governor’s widowed mother Elizabeth Willoughby removed to Charlestown, and died 15 September 1662, having made her will the previous May in London; among her many legacies was one of £5 to “my sister Jane Hammond of Virginia,” and another to "my Kinsman Laurance Hammond, Sonn to my Sister Jane aforesaid.”  (Another sister was Anna, wife of William Griffin of Portsmouth, Hants., who may also have emigrated to Virginia.)  William and Elizabeth Willoughby seem to have had links to St. Dunstan’s, Stepney, where the IGI reveals the 1614 marriage of a William Willoughby and Elizabeth Wouller, and also records of contemporary Hammonds, including a Jane, daughter of an earlier Lawrence, christened in 1608, and a Hammond Willobie, son of William, christened in 1610.  A Francis Hammond, sailor, aged 24, of Shadwell, Stepney testified in an Admiralty court case in 1650.  The IGI revealed a William Griffin marrying an Anne Warman at St. Dunstan’s, Stepney, 20 August 1634, but no mention of Janes or Elizabeths of this surname marrying Hammonds or Willoughbys.  With luck these clues might be followed to produce more English origin.

    Lawrence Hammond’s diary as printed in 1892 lists his four marriages (to Audria Eaton, 1662; Abigail (Collins) Willett, 1665; Margaret (Locke) (Taylor) Willoughby, 1675; and Anne (Parson?) Gerrish, 1685) together with the date and cause of each wife’s death; of his several children, only two daughters (Abigail, wife of Luke Greenough and James Whippo, and Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Pearson, a grandson of Rev. John Wheelwright) survived to marriageable age.  Through the second marriage of his daughter Abigail (Hammond) (Greenough) Whippo, Capt. Hammond may have been an ancestor of President George Bush.

    I was marryed to Audria Eaton, a Virgin, in Charlestowne in New England (who came ye yeare before from London) on ye 30th day of September 1662. who dyed in child-bed in Charlestowne on ye 27th day of August 1663.

    I was marryed to Mrs. Abigail Willet, widow of Mr. Jno. Willet, Youngest Daughtr. of Mr. Edward Collins of Meadford in N. England, on ye 12th day of May 1665. who Dyed of a Malignant feaver on ye first day of february 1673/4 in ye morning.

    I was marryed in Charlestowne to Mrs. Margaret Willoughby, widow of Francis Willoughby Esq. on ye 8th day of February 1674/5. who dyed of a feaver on ye 2d day of February 1682/3.

    I was marryed in Charlestowne to Mrs. Anne Gerrish, widow of Dr. Wm Gerrish on ye 14th day of January 1684/5. whom God yet is pleased to spare to me.

    By my wife Audria, I had a sonne, named Francis, borne August ye 19th 1663. who about ye ages of 18 yeare was bound to Mr. Nicho: Follet, Marriner of Pascataqua for 5 yeares; whose time being expired, He went to sea upon His own accot, having ye Commendation of all yt knew Him for Sobriety & good Proficiency in ye Marriner’s Art, & very hopefull in reference to true piety. The last Voyage He made was from Boston in a Vessel of Colonel Shrimpton’s, Wm Everton M[aste]r. bound for Madera’s, after their Discharge from yt port they touched at Barmuda, & thence home; & on ye 24th day of November 1688. being come into Nantasket Bay, betw: 7 and 8 at night, ye wind not serving to com up, they came to an Ankor; my son Francis was in ye foretop, furling ye foretopsaile, & from thence fell downe, struck upon ye ship-side, & into ye Sea, being (as its thought) struck dead with ye blow, soon sunk, & was never more seen, no boat nor hands ready to save him.

    By my wife Abigail, I [had] one son & four Daughters.

    1. Martha: borne ye 6th of April 1666. who dyed ye 7th of June. 1666.

    2. Abigail, borne ye 27. of April 1667. yet living.

    3. John, borne ye 1st of May 1669. who dyed ye 8 of Sept. 1669.

    4. Jane. borne ye 10th of August 1670. who dyed ye 25 of Decbr. 1681.

    5. Elizabeth, borne ye 13th of July 1672. yet living.

    By my wife Margaret I had no child.

    By my present wife Anne, I had Laurence, borne November ye 23d 1685. who dyed the 1st day of October 1689. by bladdr. grown in his throat [possibly diphtheria], begun on fryday Sept. 28th wch. ended his life on tuesday foll. betw: 7 & 8 at night. (a pleasant child)

    Also Francis, borne Sept. 13th about one in ye morning yet Living, tho’ now in ill.

    This Record I have made this 2d day of Octobr. 1689....Francis, my youngest sonne, taken wth. a Hoarseness in ye morning before day, dyed this 2d day of October 1689. betweene 8 & 9 at night of ye same distemper (as we judg) whereof his brother Laurence dyed ye night before.  They were both buryed in one Grave October 4th following.  All my 3 sonnes dead within ye Compass of a yeare.  Of eight Children wch. God bath given me, but two Daughters (Abigail & Elizabeth) are now living.  The Lord gives, & ye Lord takes; blessed be ye name of ye Lord (Diary, pp. 150-51).


    Lawrence Hammond died intestate on 29 August 1699, and a first inventory of his possessions was filed at Boston on 6 November:

    INVENTORY of all and singular the Goods, Chattel and Credits of Capt. Lawrence Hammond late of Boston deceased taken...November 6th 1699.

    1 ps of Linsey woolsey Stuff £2.8s, 60 gallons of Lime Juice £3, 32 pound Sugar £1.4s, 6 Cord of Wood £2.10s.; 10 dozn of quart bottles & 6 case ditto £1.10; 10 small bundles of quils 2s.; 80 printed bookes small and great £5, 1 Tellescope 6s.; 1 Scale and Compass 2s., 2 pr brass Scales and weights 6s.; 1 Musquet 18s., 1 Silverhilted Sword and belt £3.; 3 Silverheaded Canes £1.12s., 1 Saddle & bridle &c. £3.; 1 pr boots and Spurs 10s., 2 razors and 1 hone 3s., 1 Ink-home. 1 knife & forke. 1 Turtle Shell combe & 1 pr spectacks 8s.; His Wearing Apparrel both woollen and Linnen £14. 15s.; his household Goods £25.10s., one negro woman £18.; 1 Silver Tumbler. 2 Spoom. 3 pr. buttom. 1 pr. buckles £3.; 1 old watch £1, 2 gold rings 14s.; 1 Silver Server. 2 Silver Cupps £5.17s.; His Purse £177.16s.3d. [TOTAL]: £272.11s. 3d. [Subscribed] Samuel Turell, John Walley.

    Debts standing out. due to him vizt.

    From Capt. Wm. Fry & Comp. Executors of Capt. George Liddell, £52.16s.8d.; Mr. James Whippo [son-in-law], £26.4s.4d.; Mr. Andrew Harood, £11; Mr. Thomas Pe[a]rson [son-in-law], £6; Mr. Noah Lloyd, £3. 1s.11d.; Mr. Edward Johnson, £6.15s.; Capt. George Ball, £3.

                                        [TOTAL]: £108. 17s. lid.

    Debts due from the Estate Vizt.

    To the Funeral Charges, £56.5s.6d.; to Mr. Jahleel Brenton of London, £48. 18s.6d.; to his Ma’tys Custom house at London, £6.18s.10d.; to Mr. Ebenezer Austin of Charlestown, £19.15s., to Mr. John Stevens of Boston, £3.8s.; to the Estate of Mr. Wm Gerrish Chirurgeon late of Charlestowne dec’ed which belongs to his Children in his hands, £46. 19s.; to Sundry Merchts in ye West Indies Vizt Nevis & Mountserrat &c. [no amount]. [Signed:] Anne Hammond

    The listing in the inventory of 60 gallons of lime juice, valued at £3, may indicate that Capt. Hammond was provisioning sea voyages.  He did not live poorly; note several items ornamented with silver, tortoise shell, etc.  Observe also the “1 Tellescope” valued at 6 shillings; this item may reflect the interest in “scientific” experiments evident in other parts of this diary.  Although Capt. Hammond was a prosperous merchant, considerable cash was outstanding at the time of his death.  His estate owed debts to the Custom House at London, to the estate of his widow’s previous husband Dr. William Gerrish (which estate Capt. Hammond may have managed on behalf of his wife and her Gerrish children), and to “Sundry Merchts in ye West Indies Vizt Nevis & Mountserrat &c.”  His widow, Anne (Parson?) Gerrish, was in the midst of administering the insolvent estate when she herself died at some point before 27 October 1701; letters of administration were granted to Joseph Parson (quite possibly Anne’s brother or other close relative), to act as administrator de bonis non.  A further inventory dated 26 August 1704 notes that the widow had already paid £80. 2s. 2d to “Edw. Parson of Mountserrat, in part of the Debt due to him,” which in total amounted to £393.19s.7d.. suggesting the close ties of money and kinship between merchants at various points on the triangle.  (Also due monies from the estate were William Gerrish of Mountserrat (f57.7s.11d.) and Jahleel Brenton, Esq., no longer “of London” (still owed £43. 1s. 10 in 1704).  The latter creditor was the son of a colonial governor of Rhode Island; the Brenton family of Newport, RI. had mercantile interests on both sides of the Atlantic.)  The nameless black woman valued at £18 in 1699 disappears from later inventories, suggesting that she had died or had been sold.

    In a city where wooden houses stood packed together, fire was an ever-present danger.  Lawrence Hammond’s diary mentions several destructive fires which ravaged parts of Boston or Charlestown.  The juxtaposition of shrewd business sense and superstition is typical of the seventeenth century; the “Sam Kittle” who saw the cat is probably [Ensign] Samuel Kettell (1642-1694), son of Richard, of Charlestown.

    Nov[ember] 27, [16]76. A fire brake out in Boston about 5 in ye Morng at one Wakefields house by the Red Lion by a candle carelessly set and enlightened wch so prevailed yt it burnt down about 45 dwelling houses, the north meeting house & several warehouses.  The wind was S E when it began, & blew hard.  Soon after it rained ye wind veering S bro’t so much rain that did much prevent further mischief which (the wind blowing extremne hard) it had probably laid in ashes all that end of the Town & endangered Charlestowne also, for many hundred flakes of fire came over the River & fell among houses barns &c.  Some were carried quite over to ye other side of the Town by Johnsons Brick-kilm.  There were burnt down Mr. Increase Mather’s house, Mr. Jeremiah Cushings, Thomas Moores, tenements all of them, which brought him in about 70 or 80£ p[e]r Ann[um] Rents, Lieut Ways house, Dr. Stone’s houses, Mr. John Winsle’s Mr. Anthony Checkleys new house with sundry others that were considerable.  About 5 houses were blown up which was a means to prevent the spreading of the fire.  About 70 or 80 families dispossessed of their dwellings & lodgings some losing all they had.

    It is affirmed by Sam Kittle of our town [Charlestown] that he standing at the S corner of the meeting house after it was fallen down (but all the timberwork of a violent flame) he saw a black cat jump in at ye S end who ran clear through yt vehement fire, the whole length: of ye meeting house & saw her run out at the further end without any apparent damage; which must needs be preternatural.

    The following seventeenth-century joke, also taken from Capt. Hammond’s diary, offers a taste of what our ancestors found amusing.  Joshua Brodbent, "horn breaker” of Boston 1684-86, was arrested in 1685 for slandering the New Hampshire grand jury, but was made New Hampshire Provost Marshal the next year.

    Anno 1688. In New england, One J Brodbent an Excise man and a Hectoring Debauchee, Residt. in Boston (where too many of the same stamp, have lately multiplyed) meeting an Honest, Ingenious Countryman upon the Road, enquired of him, what News Countryman? who Replyed, I know none:  the other then Replyed, I’ll tell you som:; What is it? (said ye Countryman); said the other, The Devil is [152] Dead: How? said ye Countryman, I believe not that; Yes, said ye other, he is dead for certaine:  Well then, said ye Countryman, if he be dead, he hath left many fatherless children in Boston.

    FURTHER SOURCES: Administration of Capt. Lawrence Hammond’s insolvent estate (Suffolk Probate #2532) can be found in Probate Vols. 14:75-76, 108, 187-88,413-14; 15:31-32, 323-25, NS 4:359-63, at the Suffolk County Registry of Probate, Boston.  I am indebted to William H. Schoeffler of NEHGS for some interpretation of these estate papers, including the hypothesis that Mrs. Anne Gerrish Hammond was formerly a Parson and a near relative of Hammond’s “Bro: Parson” [Diary, p. 163].

    For Lawrence Hammond’s admission as an inhabitant of Charlestown, see T.B. Wyman, Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown (2 vols. [1879]; reprinted, 1 vol. [1982]), p. 461; for his church membership, J.C. Hunnewell, Records of the First Church in Charlestown,Mass. (1880), p. 13.  For his military promotions, see Records of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, vol. 4, pt. 2 (1854), pp. 382, 438; his oath as a freeman is ibid., p. 582. “Larance Hamon” as attorney for Francis Willoughby sold property on 18th, 4 mo. 1662 [Report of the Boston Record Commission Containing Charlestown Land Records, 1638-1802 (1878), p. 155].

    Both Hammond and Parson figure in R.E. Moody and R.C. Simmons, eds., The Glorious Revolution in Massachusetts: Selected Documents 1689-1692 (Publications of the Colonial Society of Mass., vol. 64 [1988]), and in the Edward Randolph Papers (Prince Society Collections [PSC], 7 vols. [1898-1909]). Contemporary fulminations by and about the actors in late seventeenth-century Massachusetts politics can be found in The Andros Tracts (PSC, 3 vols. [1868-74]); Lawrence Hammond wrote at least one partisan pamphlet, and was derided in another (by a punster of a rival faction) as “hardly deserv[ing] the name of Haman [the villain in the Old Testament Book of Esther], altho’ it’s pretty near it” (vol. 2 [1869], pp. 31-32).  Statistics quoted to Edward Randolph by Capt. Hammond about ships from Boston to Newfoundland during the spring of 1698 are given in Randolph’s Papers, vol. 5 (PSC, vol. 28 [1899]), p. 215.  For Captain Kidd, see M. Halsey Thomas, ed., The Diary of Samuel Sewall, vol. 1(1973), pp. 422-24n; also NEHGR (1852): 77-84.

    Further information on Lawrence Hammond and his family can be found in Wyman, pp.461-62 and 1036-37; R.D. Joslyn, ed., Charlestown Vital Records, vol. 1(1985), references throughout; Report of the Boston Records Commission Containing Boston Births, Baptisms, Marriages and Deaths, 1630-1699, p. 252, which gives Capt. Hammond’s date of death as 29 August 1699 (the introduction to the Diary gives 29 July, Wyman 25 July); NEHGR 30(1876): 67-78, reprinted in English Origins of New England Families, second series [E02], vol. 3(1984), pp. 821-27; E.E. Salisbury and E.McC. Salisbury, Family-Histories and Genealogies, vol. 1, part 2 (1892), pp. 507-559 (Capt. Hammond’s parentage is suggested on p. 557).  Wills showing his relationship to the Willoughbys are reprinted in H.F. Waters, Genealogical Gleanings in England, vol. 2 (1901), pp. 971,973 (William Willoughby) and Salisbury, vol. 1, part 2(1892), pp. 517-23.  A dissociation of Deputy Gov. Francis Willoughbys family from the younger branch of the baronial Willoughbys of Parham (as identified by the Salisburys) can be found in TAG 56(1980): 12-13 (this article also cites the marriage at St. Dunstan’s on “iij Nov. 1614” of “William Willobye of Lymhouse Marriner & Elizabeth Wouller," and records on htree of their children).

    Lothrop Withington (on the evidence of the seal on Mrs. Elizabeth Willoughbys will) believed that she was related to the Eatons of Cheshire (NEHGR 5311899]: 432), repr. E02, vol. 2 [1985]: 436).  The 1610 baptism at St. Dunstan’s, Stepney, of Hammond Willobie, son of a William, is from the 1988 London IGI.  For Maynwaring Hammond of Virginia as heir to “Fra. Hammond,” see N.M. Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, vol. 2(1977), p. 128.  The Francis Hammond testifying in the Admiralty court case is quoted in P.W. Coldham, English Adventurers and Emigrants, vol. 1(1984), p. 118.  For the Brenton family of Newport, R.I., see J. O. Austin, Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island (1887, repr. 1969), p. 254.  For Joshua Brodbent, see S. Noyes, C.T. Libby, and W.G. Davis, A Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire (1928-39; repr. 1976), p. 111.

    The paternal ancestry of Abigail (Collins) (Willett) Hammond, daughter of Edward and Martha (___) Collins of Bramford, Suffolk and Cambridge and Medford, Mass., was well covered by M.L. and W.L. Holman in NEHGR 89(1935):73-79, 148-51 (reprinted in English Origins of New England Families, first series, vol.2, pp. 510-16) and TAG 23(1946-47): 149-53.  A Martha Balie, daughter of Francis, was baptized at Framlingham, Suffolk 20 February 1609, and may have been the Martha Baylie who married an Edward Collins there 20 November 1628 [IGI, 1988 ed.].  Further work might determine if this Edward Collins was the immigrant.  The descent of Margaret (Locke) (Taylor) Willoughby, Lawrence Hammond’s third wife, was published in Salisbury, pp. 605-625.

    President Bush’s possible descent from Lawrence Hammond is through the Whippos.  “Whippo” does not seem related to “Whipple,” but may be of Scottish origm.  A James Whippo was in Barnstable in the 1680s, where his first wife Experience Hinckley (daughter of Gov. Thomas) apparently died without issue.  Whippo married secondly Abigail (Hammond) Greenough in Boston 25 February 1691/92  [Diary, p. 160].  Their children were born at Barnstable (see NEHGR 2[I848]:197, 1011856]:348-51).  Barnstable histories say James Whippo moved to Boston in 1708, but only one 1708 deed for Whippo, “of Barnstable merchant” is found there. Samuel Sewall's diary for 22 August 1711 (vol. 2 11973], p., 667) notes Abigail Whippo’s burial at the “new burying place” in Boston, which according to Professor John Schutz, should be the Granary yard on Tremont Street.  The only family members with extant monuments seem to be Lawrence’s second wife, Abigail (Collins) Willett (d. 1674) and their daughter Jane (d. 1681), both at the Phipps Street yard in Charlestown.

    A later James Whippo was born in New York City 2 January 1718/19 to a so-far undetermined Whippo (possibly James, b. Barnstable 27 November 1692, or Lawrence, b. there 17 June 1694, sons of James and Abigail [Hammond] Whippo) and his wife Sarah ___, who apparently was born in Charlestown, Mass., and married (2) Barak Coles ca. 1721 (see Julia Clark, “The Family of Barak Coles,” NYGBR 120[1989]: 21-24, 108-11).  The second James lived in Oyster Bay, where he married a Priscilla Tillot in 1742 and a Keziah (Brush) Mott, widow of Thomas, in 1763.  From similar naming patterns, some Bible records, and other sources, this Oyster Bay James Whippo seems a likely father of Priscilla Whippo, wife of Sanford Smith and #35 in President Bush’s Ancestor Table; see NEXUS 6(1989): 23-27, and also pp. 156-59 in this issue.

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