These 10 families - the Greens, Harrimans, Ryans, Sages, Vails, Folgers, Mellons, Harknesses, Hugheses, and Flaglers - thus at one time had, or have, New England-derived links to medieval kings. None of these families is extinct, for all of these tycoons left kinsmen, but Hetty Green, Russell Sage, T. N. Vail, H. C. Folger, E.S. Hark-ness, Howard Hughes, and H.M. Flagler all have no living descendants, and no future Harrimans, Ryans, or Mellons will share or continue the descents outlined below. The contributions to American history of these ten industrialists, financiers, developers (Hughes of Nevada, Flagler of Florida) and philanthropists is nonetheless immense. Again arranged geographically, Green, Harriman, Ryan, Sage, and Vail are associated with New York City or Wall Street (and Hetty Green also with New Bedford, Massachusetts, Averill Harriman also with Washington, D.C., and the Sages also with Troy and Syracuse, New York), Folger with New York and Washington, D.C., Paul Mellon with Pittsburgh and Washington, D.C., Harkness with Cleveland and New York, Hughes with Texas and Nevada (largely Houston and Las Vegas), and Flagler with Cleveland and Florida (especially Miami, Palm Beach, and Key West).
As regards individual achievement and corporate or philanthropic association the eccentric Hetty Green of Wall Street was reputedly the richest woman of her day in America; Averill Harriman, son of railroad magnate Edward Henry Harriman, was Governor of New York, Secretary of Commerce, U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Great Britam. and presidential representative to the Vietnam peace negotiations in Paris, 1968-1969; Thomas Fortune Ryan organized the New York City streetcar and (to some extent) subway systems; financier Russell Sage, a business associate of Jay Gould, accumulated a fortune estimated at $70,000,000, much of it used to endow the Russell Sage Foundation; and Theodore Newton Vail founded the American Telegraph and Telephone Company (AT&T) and was its president through World War I. H.C. Folger, president of Standard Oil of New York, founded and endowed the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C. Paul Mellon, son of financier and Treasury Secretary Andrew William Mellon, is one of the major philanthropists and art collectors of his generation, donor of the East Wing of the National Gallery in Washington, and. of the Yale Center for British Art. Philanthropist Edward Stephen Harkness, son of a Rockefeller partner, financed the building of Harvard houses, Yale colleges (including Harkness Tower), and much of Phillips Exeter Academy, and also established the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York. Howard Robard Hughes, Jr., one of America’s first billionaires, was a noted aviation pioneer, movie producer, Nevada developer, and the owner of Summa Corporation (formerly the Hughes Tool Company). H.M. Flagler, another Standard Oil partner, was the first great developer of Florida.
Among ancestors, kinsmen, and “in-law connections” of these tycoons and their wives, Mrs. Harriman, previously married to the only son of  Sir Winston Churchill, and then to theatrical producer Leland Hayward, is not only the mother of the present Winston Churchill, the daughter of a British peer, and a descendant of both John Singleton Copleys, the painter and British lord chancellor; she is also a cousin of most Boston Cabots, descendants of Samuel Cabot and Sarah Barrett, a niece of Susanna Farnum Clarke (below). Green and Folger, fourth cousins themselves, were also both fourth cousins once removed of Mrs. Sage, all through the Slocums. Another Slocum descendant of interest, a third cousin of Folger, a fourth cousin of Green, and also a fourth cousin once removed of Mrs. Sage, was William Crapo Durant, 1861-1947 (William Clark Durant & Rebecca Folger Crapo; Henry Howland Crapo & Mary Ann Slocum; William Slocum & Anne Almy Chase; Peleg Slocum III & Elizabeth Brown, below), the founder of General Motors, who declared bankruptcy in 1935. Pivotal to the joining of Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Oldsmobile, and Pontiac, 1908-1916, Durant was ousted from the G.M. presidency in 1920; with some exceptions his later career was largely unsuccessful.
Mrs. Ryan was a great-aunt of Mrs. Cyrus Roberts Vance (Grace Elsie Slocum), wife of the Secretary of State, and a second cousin of Bessie Springs Smith, wife of the architect Stanford White. Mrs. Mellon is a daughter of Gerard Barnes Lambert, president of both the Lambert Pharmacal Co. (later the Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Co.) and of the Gillette Safety Razor Co. Mrs. Flagler later married Robert Worth Bingham. diplomat and owner of the Louisville (Ky.) Courier-Journal and Louisville Times. For further connections of Hetty Green, Mrs. Ryan, and Mrs. Mellon, each of whom shared ancestry with H.R.H. The Princess of Wales and her sons, see G. B. Roberts and William Addams Reitwiesner, American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales (1984). Another distant relative of the Princess, one who was not herself of royal descent that I can trace, was Mary Harkness, first wife of H.M. Flagler.
As noted in the first of these “tycoon” columns, Mrs. Hughes, later Mrs. James Overton Winston, Jr., was a great-neice of Houston philanthropist William Marsh Rice, a sister-in-law of oil executive William Stamps Farish, Jr., and a cousin of the Lummis heirs of her first husband. Probably the most surprising of all “tycoon” genealogical connections is a kinship shared by this Rice – Hughes – Farish - Lummis group through the below-listed Horace Baldwin an early mayor of Houston. Baldwin’s maternal grandfather, Stephen Warner (1744-1812) of Cummington, Massachusetts, was also, by a second wife, the martrilineal great-great-grandfather of Katherine Morgan Rowland, who married George Lauder (III), a first cousin once removed of steel magnate Andrew Carnegie. Their daughter, Mary Josephine Rowland Lauder, married James Joseph “Gene” Tunney, the boxer and world heavyweight champion, 1926-28, and was the mother of California Senator John Varick Tunney. Thus the wives of Howard Hughes and Gene Tunney were half fourth cousins.
The format used below is similar to that of earlier columns: the tycoon’s name, birth and death years, then parentheses and the name of his wife if the royal ancestry is hers, his or her parents, a set of grandparents, great-grandparents, etc., backwards to one or more italicized immigrants of royal descent, with semi-colons separating generations and commas separating couples in the same generation from the tycoon or his wife. Further notes on the English forebears of the 15 italicized royally descended immigrants listed below, plus some discussion of kinships among the 30 tycoons treated in these three columns, follow the itemized bibliography. Since the other families through which these descents are traced number over 25, and spousal surnames over 40, once again many NEXUS readers with extensive New England ancestry will find distant kinsmen listed below.
1. MRS. HENRIETTA “HETTY” HOWLAND ROBINSON GREEN, 1834-1916; Edward Mott Robinson & Abby Slocum Howland; Gideon Howland, Jr., and Mehitable Howland; Gideon Howland & Sarah Hicks (parents of Gideon, Jr.), Isaac Howland III & Abigail Slocum (parents of Mehitable); Thomas Hicks III & Judith Akm. Giles Slocum & Sylvia Russell; Thomas Hicks, Jr., & Ann Clarke, Peleg Slocum. Jr., & Rebecca Bennett; Weston Clarke & Mary Easton, Peleg Slocum & Mary Holder, Jonathan Bennett & Anna Williams; Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke of Rhode Island & Frances Latham. Christopher Holder & Mary Scott, John Williams & Anna Alcock; Richard Scott & Katherine Marbury, John Alcock & Sarah Palgrave; Dr. Richard Palgrave & Anna ____.
2. WILLIAM AVERELL HARRIMANN, 1891-1986 (third wife, Hon. Pamela Beryl Digby Spencer-Churchill Hayward; Edward Kenelm Digby, 11th Baron Digby, & Hon. Constance Pamela Alice Bruce; Henry Campbell Bruce, 2nd Baron Aberdare, & Constance Mary Beckett; Hamilton Beckett & Hon. Sophia Clarence Copley; John Singleton Copley [Jr.], 1st Baron Lyndhurst, British Lord Chancellor, & Sarah Garay Brunsden; John Singleton Copley, the artist, & Susanna Farnum Clarke; Richard Clarke & Elizabeth Winslow; William Clarke & Hannah Appleton, Edward Winslow, Jr., & Elizabeth Dixey; Samuel Appleton III & Elizabeth Whittingham. Edward Winslow & Elizabeth Hutchinson; Samuel Appleton, Jr., & Hannah Paine, William Whittingham & Mary Lawrence, Edward Hutchinson & Catherine Hamby; Samuel Appleton & Judith Everard, John Whittingham & Martha Hubbard, John Lawrence of Flushing, Long Island, & Susanna ___, William Hutchinson & Anne Marbury; Richard Whittingham & Elizabeth Bulkeley).
3. THOMAS FORTUNE RYAN, 1851-1928 (second wife, Mrs. Mary Townsend Nicoll Lord Cuyler; Solomon Townsend Nicoll & Charlotte Anne Nicoll; Edward Holland Nicoll & Mary Townsend [parents of S. T. Nicoll]; Solomon Townsend & Anne Townsend; Peter Townsend & Hannah Hawxhurst [parents of Anne]; Henry Townsend IV & Elizabeth Titus; Henry Townsend III & Eliphal Wright; Henry Townsend, Jr., & Deborah Underhill; John Underhill of Oyster Bay, Long Island, & Elizabeth Feake, great-niece of Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts Bay).
4. RUSSELL SAGE, 1816-1906 (second wife, Margaret Olivia Slocum; Joseph Slocum & Margaret Pierson Jermain; William Brown Slocum & Olivia Josselyn; John Slocum & Hannah Brown; Joseph Slocum & Susanna Wanton; Peleg Slocum & Mary Holder; Christopher Holder & Mary Scott; Richard Scott & Katherine Marbury).
5. THEODORE NEWTON VAIL, 1845-1920; Davis Vail & Phebe Quinby; Lewis Vail & Jane McCune; Davis Vail & Hannah Moore; Thomas Vail & Sarah Davis, Stephen Moore & Eunice Ford; John Vail & Martha FitzRandolph, Daniel Moore & Anne Sayre; John FitzRandolph & Martha ____, Joseph Moore, Jr., & Hannah Dimon; Nathaniel FitzRandolph & Mary Holley, James Dimon & Hannah James; Edward FitzRandolph & Elizabeth Blossom. Rev. Thomas James of LI. & Ruth Jones.
6. HENRY CLAY FOLGER, JR., 1857-1930; Henry Clay Folger & Eliza Jane Clark; Samuel Brown Folger & Nancy Hillar; George Folger, Jr., & Rebecca Slocum; Peleg Slocum III & Elizabeth Brown; Peleg Slocum. Jr., & Rebecca Bennett, ancestors of “Hetty” Green, #1 above.
7. PAUL MELLON, b. 1907 (second wife, Mrs. Rachel Lowe Lambert Lloyd; Gerard Barnes Lambert & Rachel Parkhill Lowe; Arthur Houghton Lowe & Anne Elizabeth Parkhill; John Lowe & Sarah Mead; David Lowe & Louisa Adeline Messenger; Joseph Low, Jr., & Mary Sawyer; Joseph Low & Abigail Low; David Low, Jr., & Susanna Low [parents of Joseph], Caleb Low & Abigail Varney [parents of Abigail]; David Low & Mary Lamb [parents of David, Jr., & Caleb]; Caleb Lamb & Mary Wise; Joseph Wise & Mary Thompson; John Thompson & Alice Freeman).
8. EDWARD STEPHEN HARKNESS, 1874-1940 (Mary Elizabeth Stillman; Thomas Edgar Stillman & Charlotte Elizabeth Greenman; Thomas Stillman Greenman & Charlotte Rogers; Silas Greenman, Jr., & Mary Stillman; Silas Greenman & Sarah Peckham; Edward Greenman, Jr., & Sarah Clarke; Jeremiah Clarke III & Elizabeth Sisson; Jeremiah Clarke, Jr., & Ann Audley; Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke of Rhode Island & Frances Latham).
9. HOWARD ROBARD HUGHES, JR., 1905-1976 (first wife, Ella Botts Rice; David Rice & Martha Lawson Botts; Frederick Allen Rice [brother of William Marsh Rice, see NEXUS 4:70, 72, and descendant of Governor Thomas Dudley of Massachusetts & Dr. Richard Palgrave] & Charlotte Maria Baldwin; Horace Baldwin & Maria Wallace; Ebenezer Wallace & Anna Snow; Silas Snow & Anna Farwell; Daniel Farwell & Mary Moor; Joseph Farwell, Jr., & Hannah Colburn; Joseph Farwell & Hannah Learned; Henry Farwell & Olive Welby).
10. HENRY MORRISON FLAGLER, 1830-1913 (third wife, Mary Lily Kenan, later Mrs. Robert Worth Bingham; William Rand Kenan & Mary V. Hargrave; Owen Rand Kenan & Sarah Rebecca Graham; Stephen Graham & Ann Dixon Williams; Chauncey Graham. Jr., & Sarah Mervin; Chauncey Graham & Elizabeth Van Wyck; John Graham & Abigail Chauncey; Isaac Chauncey & Sarah Blackleach; Israel Chauncey & Mary Nichols; Rev. Charles Chauncey [second president of Harvard College] & Catherine Eyre).
Sources: As with the 20 tycoons or tycoon wives treated in the last two “Notable Kin” columns, the royal descents of the above figures are all charted in my own “The Mowbray Connection,” 23 vols., mss. at the Society, American charts (indexed), pp. 36, 212, 232, 544, 738, 741, 785, 799, 970, 1242, 1390, 1535, 2097, 2665-66, and about a half-dozen addenda pages. These charts also cover a descent from Mrs. Margaret Wyatt Allyn of Windsor, Connecticut, to Edward Henry Green, Hetty’s husband; Mrs. Harriman’s line from Richard Tilghman of Maryland; and descent from John Washington of Surry County, Viginia, to Kitty Lanier Lawrence, first wife of Averill Harriman. In addition to these charts, to the Dictionary of National Biography, and to various Who’s Who-type compilations, the following sources cover the above-outlined American ancestry of these 10 tycoons or tycoon wives in considerable detail.
1. Green: William M. Emery, The Howland Heirs (1919), esp. pp. 30, 58-59, 116, 354-70; CE. Slocum.A Short History of the S/ocums, Slocuinbs, and Slocombs of America (1882), pp. 50-54, 66, 83-84; Henry Howland Crapo, Certain Comeovers (1912), vol. I, pp. 341-43, vol. 2, pp. 1009-15 (Bennett, Williams, Alcock, Palgrave); Genealogies of Rhode Island Families From Rhode Island Periodicals, vat. 2 (1983), pp. 401-6 (Williams); the Register 97 (1943): 12-14 (Alcock), 102 (1948) :97-98 (Palgrave).
2. Mrs. Harriman: any recent Burke’s Peerage, Digby, Aberdare, and Grimthorpe articles (Digby, Bruce, Beckett); The [New] Complete Peerage, vol. 8 (1932), pp. 297-99 (Copley, Baron Lyndhurst); L. Vernon Briggs, History and Genealogy of the Cabot Family. 1475-1927, vol. 1 (1927), pp. 214-26 (Clarke, Appleton, Whittingham. Lawrence, Winslow, Hutchinson); D. L. Jacobus, The Bulkeley Genealogy (1933), pp. 33-35 (Whittingham) and Consuelo Furman, “St. Albans Origin of John Lawrence of New Amsterdam. Thomas Lawrence of Newtown, LI., [and William Lawrence of Flushing, LI.” (1955), pp. 18-21, 23 esp. See also Jules David Prown, John Singleton Copley in America, 1738-1 774 (1966), esp. pp. 151, 153 (Clarke and Copley charts).
3. Mrs. Ryan: Cholly Knickerbocker (Murray Paul), The Nicolls (1937), pp. 5-8; W.A. Townsend, A Memorial of John, Henry, and Richard Townsend, and Their Descendants (1865), pp. 185, 188, 98-100; Edwin R. Deats and Harry Macy, Underhill Genealogy, vol. 5 (1980), pp. 41, 57, 64, 106. See also NEXUS 3 (1986): 292, where I listed Mrs. Ryan, Mrs. Vance, and Mrs. White as descendants of a half-sibling (Benjamin Nicoll, Jr., grandfather of Edward Holland Nicoll above) of U.S. Constitution signer William Samuel Johnson.
4. Mrs. Sage: C.E. Slocum. op.cit. (see #1 above), pp. 50-54, 68, 86-87, 121-22, 213-14. See also Henry Whittemore, History of the Sage and Slocum Families of England and America (1908), especially the Slocum chapter, pp. 7, 10, 12-13, 26-28, 38.
5. Vail: W.P. Vail, Genealogy of Some of the Vail Family Descended from Thomas Vail (1937), pp. 101-21, 141-47, 167-76, 191-96, 281-93, 345-49; L.A. Christian and H.S. FitzRandolph, The Descendants of Edward FitzRandolph and Elizabeth Blossom. 1630-1950 (1950), pp. 5-6, 9; James W. Moore, Rev. John Moore of Newtown, Long Island, and Some of His Descendants (1903), pp. 358-60; The American Genealogist (henceforth TAG) 11 (1934-1935): 26-30 (Dimon, James).
6. Folger: National Cyclopedia of American Biography (henceforth NCAB), vol.23(1933), pp. 9-10(H.C. Folger) and the printed Nantucket vital records (births of H.C., Sr., Samuel B., and George Folger, Jr.); C.E. Slocum. op.cit (see #s 1 and 4 above), pp. 50-54, 66, 84, 115-16; Bennett, Williams, and Palgrave sources as per “Hetty” Green, #1 above).
7. Mrs. Mellon: NCAB, current vol. M (1978), pp. 447-49, vol. 52(1970), p. 391, and vol. 24(1935), p. 192 (Paul Mellon, G.B. Lambert, and A.H. Lowe); O.M. and W.H. Lowe and E.M. Merriam. The Ancestors of the John Lowe Family Circle  and Their Descendants (1901), pp. 18, 20-23, 34-35, 37-38, 46-47, 55-56, 82-83 (Lowe, Low, Lamb); TAG 56 (1980): 80-82 (Wise).
8. Mrs. Harkness: NCAB, vol. 15 (1916), p. 103 (T.E. Stillman); Carroll W. Greenman, The Greenman Family in America (1979), pp. 5-7; G.A. Morrison, Jr., Clarke Genealogies: The “Clarke” Families of Rhode Island (1902), pp. 214-15, 218-19, 223-24.
9. Mrs. Hughes: research in Texas primary sources in Austin by Mr. Robert Behra, now of St. Louis, National Genealogical Society Quarterly 71(1983): 7, 12, and E.D. Barbour, “Descendanls of George Barbour” (typescript at the Society), vol. 7, 1907, p. 3399 (Rice); L.C. Warner & J.G. Nichols, The Descendants of Andrew Warner (1919), p. 279 (Baldwin); J.D. Farwell, J.H. Abbott and L.M. Wilson, The Farwell Family vol. I (1929), pp. 25-37, 41-44, 50-52, 81-82, 130-131 (Wallace, Snow, Farwell).
10. Mrs.Flagler: Helen Graham Carpenter, The Reverend John Graham of Woodbury, Connecticut, and His Descendants (1942), pp. 1-53 (esp. the chart opposite page 20), 75-87, 217 18, 318 21, 435-37.
11. Cabot, Durant, Vance, White, Tunney: the 1927 Cabot and 1912 Crapo (Certain Comeovers) genealogies cited above, passim (Cabot, Durant); Kenneth Lord, Genealogy of the Descendants of Thomas Lord (1946), p. 168, and NCAB, vol. 56 (1975), pp. 424-25 (Vance); Frederick Kinsman Smith, The Family of Richard Smith of Smithtown, Long Island (1967), pp. 188-89, 254-55, 370-71 (White); L.C. Warner and J.G. Nichols, op. cit. (see #9 above), pp. 175-77, 282, William F. Reed, The Descendants of Thomas Durfee, vol. 2 (1905), pp. 94-95, 336, Obituary Record of Yale Graduates, 1915-1916 (1916), pp. 188-89, and the first and later pages of the New York Times and Herald Tribune of October 4, 1928 (Tunney).
For the royal descents of Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke, Mrs. Katherine Marbury Scott and Mrs. Anne Marbury Hutchinson, Dr. Richard Palgrave, Samuel Appleton, Mrs. Elizabeth Bulkeley Whittingham Haugh, Edward FitzRandolph, Rev. Thomas James, Mrs. Olive Welby Farwell and Rev. Charles Chauncey, see F.L. Weis and W.L. Sheppard, Jr., Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists, fifth ed. (1976), or (with Arthur Adams) The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, third ed. (1979). For the royal ancestry of Mrs. Catherine Hamby Hutchinson, John Lawrence, and Mrs. Alice Freeman Thompson Parke, see the Register 141 (1987): 96-97, 105, and sources cited therem. For the royal line of Mrs. Judith Everard Appleton see The Connecticut Nutmegger 10 (1977-78): 188, and sources there listed. For the royal descent of John Underhill of New York see John Ross Delafield, Delafield: The Family History, vol. 2 (1945), passim. and Edwin R. Deats and Harry Macy, Jr., Underhill Genealogy, vol. 5 (1980), pp. 18-48, and note also NEXUS 3 (1986): 134-35, 292, 294. Through Clarke, the Marbury sisters, Palgrave, Mrs. Haugh, Rev. James, or Mrs. Farwell, Hetty Green, Mrs. Harriman, Mrs. Sage, Vail, Folger, Mrs. Harkness and Mrs. Hughes were descendants of Edward I, King of England, who died in 1307. Through John Underhill, Mrs. Ryan was descended from Henry I, King of England, who died in 1135; through Rev. Chauncey, Mrs. Flagler was descended from Henry I, King of France, who died in 1060; and through Alice Freeman, Mrs. Mellon is descended from Ethelred II, King of England, who died in 1016.
Altogether, then, these three columns of “Tycoons, New England, and Kings” cover the descents of 30 families or individuals (or their wives) from 35 New England or Long Island immigrants of royal descent. Twenty of these 30 tycoon families, tycoons, or tycoon wives are descended from fourteenth-century kings-Edward I or Edward III of England; and fully 26 of them are distantly related, through only the immigrants treated herem. to at least one other among these 30. Rev. Peter Bulkeley, his two sisters (Mrs. Haugh and Mrs. Mellowes), his two nieces (Mrs. Farwell and Mrs. Whiting), or Rev. Thomas James, Bulkeley’s great-nephew, are ancestors of duPonts, Firestones, Fords, Goulds, Mrs. Harriman, Houghtons, Mrs. Hughes, Scrippses, and Vail. The Marbury sisters, Mrs. Scott and the famed Mrs. Hutchinson, are ancestors of duPonts, Folger, Hetty Green, Mrs. Harriman, Lippincotts, Mrs. Sage, and Whartons. Palgrave is an ancestor of Folger, Hetty Green, Houghtons, Mrs. Hughes, and Rices, and Mrs. Alice Freeman Thompson Parke is an ancestor of Firestones, Fords, McCorrnicks, and Mrs. Mellon. Thomas Bressie, Rev. Charles Chauncey, Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke, Governor Thomas Dudley, and Thomas Trowbridge are each ancestors of three of these families or individuals - Bressie of Fields, Palcys, and Whitneys; Chauncey of Firestones, Fords, and Mrs. Flagler; Clarke of Hetty Green, Mrs. Harkness, and the Wharton-Lippincott clan; Dudley of duPonts, Mrs. Hughes, and Rices; and Trowbridge of Paleys, Strauses, and Vanderbilts. Samuel and Judith (Everard) Appleton are ancestors of Mrs. Harriman and the StillmanGreenwich Rockefeller clan; and Griffith and Margaret (Fleming) Bowen are ancestors of Chandlers and Tiffanys. Although J.P. Morgan, C.A. Pillsbury, John D. and William Rockefeller and Mrs. T. F. Ryan share no royally descended New England ancestors with the other tycoons treated herem. Mrs. J.P. Morgan (Frances Louise Tracy, his second wife, the mother of all his children) and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. (Abby Greene Aldrich, his first wife, mother of the five Rockefeller brothers) were both descendants of Mrs. Alice Freeman Thompson Parke, above, and Mrs. Ryan and Mrs. Charles Stinson Pillsbury (Helen Pendleton Winston, daughter-in-law of C.A. Pillsbury) share descent from the Strong and Holton families of Northampton with The Princess of Wales. See Roberts and Reitwiesner, op.cit., pp. 21-32, 34, 36, 49-50, 52-54.