Between the Civil War and World War II, American industry was concentrated in the Northeast and Midwest, with its financial capital New York City and its midwestern center Chicago. New York City was a magnet for ambitious youngsters from northern New Jersey and Long Island (both with significant ancestral ties to Connecticut and Rhode Island), from Connecticut and the Connecticut Valley, and from New England-derived upstate New York. The Midwest, especially Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin. was first settled largely by New Englanders. Even Pennsylvania had many New England connections — via Quakers (and most often to Rhode Island) in Philadelphia, and to Connecticut especially in the Susquehanna and Wyoming Valleys. Thus many early tycoons, often born in the1820s, 1830s, or 1840s, were at least partially of New England ancestry. Generally the seventh, eighth, or ninth generation in descent from their immigrant New England ancestors, these Yankee or Yankee-derived industrialists, financiers, and merchants often had well over 50 Great Migration forebears — 100 if wives with known 71 surnames or New England kinsmen are included.
Among the 50-100 Great Migration ancestors of many tycoons were frequently one or more of the 115 or so colonial immigrants to New England (minus royal governors who left no American progeny) who bore royal descents. I listed these 115, with references, in The Connecticut Nutmegger 10 (1977-78):187-198, 400, and updated this article, with commentary on all post-1960 literature dealing with New England immigrants of royal descent, in the April 1987 Register. Such descents were shared by many, perhaps even most, Americans of New England ancestry by the mid-19th century. Royal ancestry for tycoon families is not extraordinary, then, but typical. Because these descents connect major modern, medieval, and even pre-feudal figures, however, they are of interest — both for their own sake (as tour-de-force curio samples drawn from the enormous corpus of good genealogical scholarship) and as delineators of long-range social patterns linking kings, nobles gentry, professionals, and middle-class Americans.
The purpose of this and I hope two succeeding columns is to outline the New England-derived royal descents of 30 tycoon families. The 10 treated below are those families whose fortune founders were themselves of royal descent. The Second column in this series will treat those families (including Vanderbilts, Whitneys, duPonts, Fords, and McCormicks) where the royal descent was borne not by the founder of the fortune but by his wife, daughter-in-law, or granddaughter-in-law, etc., who left descendants but is sometimes an ancestress of only part of the currently active clan. A third column will cover tycoons who left no descendants, royally descended but childless wives of tycoons, or tycoon families now extinct.
A second purpose of these columns is corrective — to outline the provable royal descents wealthy American families rather than the sometimes concocted or erroneous lines that were published in the works of Charles Henry Browning (Americans of Royal Descent, Some “Colonial Dames” of Royal Descent, and The Magna Charta Barons and Their American Descendants), David Starr Jordan and Sarah Louis Kimball (Your Family Tree), John Sparhawk Wurts (Magna  Charta), and a few others. Many good lines were included in these undocumented volumes, but many too were faulty, and the Browning corpus especially has been much criticized for suggesting both (1) a preoccupation among American genealogists with the topic of royal ancestry and (2) a hereditary justification — supposedly rare and splendid descent — for the social hegemony of our richest families. Royal descent is not rare, and it is splendid only as our major genealogical connector to medieval, continental, and classical culture. It was shared, however, often in lines undeveloped until fairly recently, by many tycoons — members of the large “New England family” of perhaps 100 million Americans descended from at most 25,000 Great Migration immigrants. The 10 families treated below — Goulds, Morgans, Rockefellers, Stillmans, Tiffanys, Whartons, Fields, Pillsburys, Chandlers, and Rices — descend collectively from 18 New England immigrants with royal ancestry. The various other New England surnames through which these descents are traced number over 30, and spousal surnames in these lines total over 40. Many NEXUS readers with extensive New England ancestry will find at least one distant kinsman below.
Descendants of Jay Gould, John Pierpont Morgan, John D. or William Rockefeller, James Stillman, Charles Lewis Tiffany, Joseph Wharton, Marshall Field, Charles Alfred Pillsbury, Harry Chandler, and siblings of William Marsh Rice, have included a wide variety of notable figures. Among the sons of these 10 were railroad executive George Jay Gould; banker John Pierpont Morgan, Jr.; philanthropist John Davison Rockefeller, Jr., builder of Rockefeller Center; art patron, glassmaker, and Tiffany lamp designer Louis Comfort Tiffany; flour mill executives Charles Stinson Pillsbury and John Sargent Pillsbury II; and newspaper publisher Norman Chandler. Sons-in-law included Harold Fowler McCormick, president of International Harvester (son of reaper inventor Cyrus Hall McCormick and son-in-law of John D. Rockefeller), Philadelphia publisher Joshua Bertram Lippincott (son of publisher Joshua Ballinger Lippincott and son-in-law of Wharton), and British admiral David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty (son-in-law of Field). Among grandsons of these 10 are the five Rockefeller brothers — John Davison III (founder of the Population Council and President of Lincoln Center, Inc.), Nelson Aldrich (Governor of New York and U.S. Vice President under Ford), Laurance Spelman (venture capitalist and chairman of Rockefeller Center and the Rockefeller Brothers Fund), Winthrop (Governor of Arkansas), and David (President and CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank); (Harold) Fowler McCormick (Jr.) of International Harvester; book publisher Joseph Wharton Lippincott; newspaper publishers Marshall Field III and Otis Chandler; and Philip Winston Pillsbury, Chairman and CEO of Pillsbury Flour Mills Company. A granddaughter of C.A. Pillsbury was Mrs. Stanley Rogers Resor, wife of a Secretary of the Army during the war in Vietnam. and great-grandsons of these 10 tycoons include John Davison Rockefeller IV, U.S. Senator and Governor of West Virginia, and publishers Joseph Wharton Lippincott, Jr., and Marshall Field IV, father of the current Marshall Field V. Two sons of William Rockefeller married two daughters of James Stillman. Elsie Rockefeller, granddaughter of William Goodsell Rockefeller and Sarah Elsie Stillman and a descendant of Paul Revere through her mother, was the first wife of Wisconsin senator (Edward) William Proxmire. Supply-side economist George Franklin Gilder, author of Wealth and Poverty, is a great-grandson of Louis Comfort Tiffany, and model Penelope Tree is a great-granddaughter of Marshall Field (I).
Members of these families treated in Notable American Women include Anne Tracy Morgan (daughter of J.P., Sr.), Mrs. Abby Green Aldrich Rockefeller (wife of John D., Jr.), and Mrs. Edith Rockefeller McCormick (daughter of John D.); almost certain to be included eventually is Mrs. Dorothy Buffum Chandler (wife of Norman), Los Angeles civic leader and philanthropist. As will be noted in a later column also, although William Marsh Rice died childless, a brother, Frederick Allen Rice, married Mrs. Charlotte Maria Baldwin Randen, whose sister was William Marsh Rice’s second wife. Ella Botts Rice, a granddaughter of Frederick and Charlotte, was the first wife of Howard Robard Hughes, Jr., the billionaire aviator, movie producer, and recluse. Libbie Randen Rice, her sister, married William Stamps Farish, Jr., president of both Humble Oil Company (now Exxon) and Standard Oil of New Jersey. In addition Charlotte Minerva Rice, a daughter of Frederick and Charlotte, married Henry Holt Lummis and their son, Frederick Rice Lummis, married Annette Gano, maternal aunt of H.R. Hughes, Jr. The four children of F. R. Lummis — William Marsh Rice Lummis, F. R. Lummis, Jr., Mrs. Paul S. Russell, Jr., and Mrs. George F. Neff — are among the 13 maternal first cousins and potential heirs of Howard Hughes.
Various spouses, sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, granddaughters-in-law, etc., of these tycoons also had New England immigrant forebears of royal descent. Morgan, John D. and William Rockefeller, the first wife of L. C. Tiffany, G. F. Gilder, Joshua Ballinger Lippincott (and thus the descendants he shares with Wharton), both wives  of Marshall Field IV, and Mrs. Charles Stinson Pillsbury also all share American ancestors with H.R.H. The Princess of Wales and her sons. These connections are all covered in G. B. Roberts and William Addams Reitwiesner, American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales (1984). The listing below is arranged geographically — Gould, Morgan, Rockefeller, Stillman, and Tiffany of New York (the Rockefellers are also associated with Cleveland), followed by Wharton of Philadelphia, Field of Chicago, Pillsbury of Minneapolis, Chandler of Los Angeles, and Rice of Houston. Companies, stores, schools, or institutions associated with these families include the Erie and various Pacific railroads (Gould); J.P. Morgan & Company and the Morgan Library (Morgan); Standard Oil Company, the University of Chicago, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, the Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller Center, the Museum of Modern Art, and Lincoln Center (Rockefeller); the National City Bank, now Citibank (Stillman); Tiffany & Company, Jewelers (Tiffany); the Wharton School of Finance at the University of Pennsylvania (Wharton); Marshall Field & Co., the Chicago Sun, later the Sun-Times, and Field Enterprises (Field); Pillsbury Flour Mills (Pillsbury); The Los Angeles Times, the Times Mirror Company, and the Music Center of Los Angeles (Chandler); and Rice Institute, now Rice University (Rice). Among other nephews and nieces of these 10 were Stanley Field, president of Chicago’s Field Museum of Natural History (later the Chicago Natural History Museum. popularly known as the Field Museum) and Mary Ethel Burns, niece of Morgan and wife of Lewis Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt, British Colonial Secretary, 1910-15.
The format of the following outlined descents is similar to that of earlier columns: the tycoon’s name, birth and death years, parents, a set of grandparents, great-grandparents, etc., backwards to one or more italicized immigrants of royal descent, with semi-colons separating generations and commas separating couples in the same generation from the tycoon. In the case of the Rockefellers, since a great-great-grandmother of the immigrant Anne Humphrey, wife firstly of William Palmes and daughter of Deputy Governor John Humphrey of Massachusetts, was a maternal first cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, the line has been extended to a sister of Queen Anne Boleyn. Further notes on the English ancestry of the italicized royally descended immigrants follow the itemized bibliography.
1. JASON (JAY) GOULD, 1836-1892; John Burr Gould & Mary More; Abraham Gould, Jr., & Anna Osborn; Eleazer Osborn, Jr., & Sarah Burr; Eleazer Osborn & Hannah Bulkeley; David Osborn & Dorothy Bulkeley, Peter Bulkeley & Hannah Ward; Peter Bulkeley, Jr., & Margaret - (parents of Dorothy), Joseph Bulkeley & - Martha Beers (parents of Peter); Rev. Peter Bulkeley & Grace Chetwode (second wife) (parents of Peter, Jr.), Thomas Bulkeley & Sarah Jones (parents of Joseph); Rev. Peter Bulkeley & Jane Allen (first wife) (parents of Thomas).
2. JOHN PIERPONT MORGAN, 1837-1913; Junius Spencer Morgan & Juliet Pierpont; John Pierpont & Mary Sheldon Lord; James Pierpont & Elizabeth Collins, Lynde Lord, Jr., & Mary Lyman; Charles Collins & Anne Huntington, Lynde Lord & Lois Sheldon; Timothy Collins & Elizabeth Hyde, Richard Lord & Elizabeth Lynde; John Collins & Anne Leete, Nathaniel Lynde & Susannah Willoughby; John Leete & Mary Chittenden, Simon Lynde & Hannah Newgate; Governor William Leete of Connecticut & Anna Payne.
3. JOHN DAVISON ROCKEFELLER, 1839-1937, & WILLIAM ROCKEFELLER, 1841-1922, brothers; William Avery Rockefeller & Eliza Davison; Godfrey Rockefeller & Lucy Avery; Miles Avery & Malinda Pixley; Solomon Avery & Hannah Punderson; Humphrey Avery & Jerusha Morgan; Samuel Avery & Susannah Palmes; William Palmes & Anne Humphrey; John Humphrey & Elizabeth Pelham; Herbert Pelham & Hon. Elizabeth West; Thomas West, 2nd Baron Delaware (de La Warr) & Anne Knollys; Sir Francis Knollys & Catherine Cary; William Cary & Lady Mary Boleyn, sister of Queen Anne Boleyn & aunt of Queen Elizabeth I.
4. JAMES STILLMAN, 1850-1918; Charles Stillman & Elizabeth Pamela Goodrich; Francis Stillman & Harriet Robbins; Nathaniel Stillman III & Martha Hanmer, Oliver Robbins & Mary Rose; Nathaniel Stillman, Jr., & Mehitable Deming, Jonathan Robbins & Sarah Welles; Nathaniel Stillman & Ann Southmayd, Robert Welles & Sarah Wolcott; William Southmayd & Margaret Allyn, Samuel Wolcott & Judith Appleton; John Allyn & Ann Smith, Samuel Appleton, Jr., & Hannah Paine; Matthew Allyn & Margaret Wyatt, Samuel Appleton & Judith Everard.
5. CHARLES LEWIS TIFFANY, 1812-1902; Comfort Tiffany & Chloe Draper; Isaac Draper & Chloe Tingley; Ebenezer Draper & Dorothy Child; Joshua Child & Elizabeth Morris; Benjamin Child & Mary Bowen; Griffith Bowen & Margaret Fleming.
6. JOSEPH WHARTON, 1826-1909; William Wharton & Deborah Fisher; Samuel Rowland Fisher & Hannah Rodman; Thomas Rodman & Mary Borden; Samuel Rodman & Mary Willett; Thomas Rodman & Hannah Clarke; Governor Walter Clarke of Rhode Island & Hannah Scott; Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke of Rhode Island & Frances Latham. Richard Scott & Katherine Marbury.
7. MARSHALL FIELD, 1834-1906; John Field & Fidelia Nash; Elijah Nash & Paulina Warner; John Nash & Martha Graves; Elnathan Graves & Martha Dickinson; Nathaniel Dickinson & Hannah White; Joseph Dickinson & Phebe Bressie; Thomas Bressie & Phebe Bisby.
8. CHARLES ALFRED PILLSBURY, 1842-1899; George Alfred Pillsbury & Margaret Sprague Carleton; Henry Carleton & Polly Greeley; Moses Carleton & Margaret Sprake; John Carleton & Hannah Platts; Thomas Carleton & Elizabeth Hazeltine; John Carleton & Hannah Jewett; Edward Carleton & Ellen Newton.
9. HARRY CHANDLER, 1864-1944; Moses Knight Chandler & Emma Jane Little; Joseph Chandler & Roxanna Clark; Ezra Chandler & Fannie Allard; Uriah Allard & Prudence Child; Joseph Child & Abigail  Bridge; Joshua Child & Elizabeth Morris; Benjamin Child & Mary Bowen; Griffith Bowen & Margaret Fleming.
10. WILLIAM MARSH RICE, 1816-1900; David Rice IV & Patty Hall; David Rice III & Sarah Bates; Urban Bates & Hannah Holbrook; John Holbrook, Jr., & Mary Hunt; John Holbrook & Sarah Ruggles, Ebenezer Hunt & Mary Lovell; Samuel Ruggles & Martha Woodbridge, Ephraim Hunt & Joanna Alcock; John Woodbridge & Mercy Dudley, John Alcock & Sarah Palgrave; Governor Thomas Dudley of Massachusetts & Dorothy York, Dr. Richard Palgrave & Anna ___.
Sources: The royal descents of the above 10 tycoons, their notable descendants, and the royal lines of various descendants derived through other ancestors, are all charted in my own “The Mowbray Connection,” 23 vols., mms. at the Society, American charts (indexed), pp. 13, 15, 24-25, 35, 103, 300, 354, 359, 360, 362, 365, 455, 490, 492, 505, 569, 592-93, 672, 716, 746, 765, 773-74, 789, 797, 839-40, 887, 943, 1010, 1117, 1134, 1253, 1336, 1360, 1404, 1460, 1643, 1721, 1792-93, 1818, 1917, 1933, 2089, 2094, 2153, 2197, 2277, 2280, 2353, 2412, 2509, 2511, 2517, 2569, 2589, 2667, 2818, 2840, 2849, 2880, 2889, 2895, 2902, 2919, 2928 and about a dozen addenda pages. In addition to these charts, the Dictionary of American Biography and various Who’s Who-type compilations, individual and family biographies, and older Morgan, Rockefeller, Tiffany, Wharton, and Pillsbury genealogies (by, respectively, James Appleton Morgan, Henry Oscar Rockefeller, Nelson Otis Tiffany, Anne Hollingsworth Wharton, and David B. Pilsbury and Emily A. Getchell), the sources listed below cover the above-outlined American ancestry of these 10 tycoons in considerable detail.
1. Gould: Donald Lines Jacobus, The Bulkeley Genealogy (1933), pp. 92-111, 113, 127-28, 134, 144, 159, 187, 344-45, 858-59.
2. Morgan: Edward Elbridge Salisbury & Evelyn McCurdy Salisbury, Family Histories and Genealogies (1892), Digby Lynde and Lord chapters, esp. vol. 1, pp. 359-76, 396-407, 290-301 and vol. 3, Supplement, Lynde and Lord pedigree charts; Reuben Hyde Walworth, Hyde Genealogy (1864), vol. 1, pp. 18-20, 44-45, 83, 159, 298-301, vol. 2, pp. 741-43; Alvan Talcott, Families of Early Guilford, Connecticut (1984), p. 767 (Leete).
3. Rockefeller: Elroy McKendree Avery & Catharine Hitchcock (Tilden) Avery, The Groton Avery Clan, vol. I (1912), pp. 114-15, 156-58, 224-26, 358-59, 585-89; TAG 15(1938-39): 122-25, 16 (1939-40): 129-32, 201-5, 18(1941-42):210-2 18.
4. Stillman: Henry R. Stiles, The History of Ancient Wethersfield, Connecticut, vol.2(1904, reprint 1975), pp. 671, 673, 676, 679, 682-84 (Stillman), 571, 573 (Robbins), 765-66 (Welles), 841-42 (Wolcott), and The History and Genealogies of Ancient Windsor, Connecticut, vol. 2 (1892, reprint 1976), pp. 27-29 (Allyn); Charles William Manwaring, A Digest of the Early Connecticut Probate Records, vol. 2 Hartford District, 1700-1729 (1904), pp. 115-16 (Southmayd); W.S. Appleton, A Genealogy of the Appleton Family (1874), pp. 5-6.
5. Tiffany: Thomas Waln-Morgan Draper, The Drapers in America (1892), pp. 129-132, and R.M. Tingley, The Tingley Family(1910), pp. 19, 40-41, 108-9, 305-6; Clarence Winthrop Bowen, The History of Woodstock, Connecticut: Genealogies of Woodstock Families, vol. 3 (1930), pp. 472-73 (Child), vol. 2 (1930), pp. 502-3 (Bowen).
6. Wharton: Charles Henry Jones, Genealogy of the Rodman Family, 1620 to 1886 (1886), pp. 10-12, 18, 27-28, 43-44, 74, 130; George Austin Morrison, Jr., Clarke Genealogies: The “Clarke” Families of Rhode Island (1902), pp. 214-18; the Register 96(1942):8-10 (reprinted in English Origins of New England Families, second series, vol. 1 [19851, pp. 94-96) (Scott).
7. Field: Frederick Clifton Pierce. Field Genealogy (1901), vol. 1, pp. 437-38, vol. 2, pp. 689-95, 888; Rev. Sylvester Nash, The Nash Family (1853), pp. 67-68, 124, 201; Kenneth Vance Graves, Graves Family Genealogies - Volume 1 (1985), pp. 26-27; Elinor V. Smith, Descendants of Nathaniel Dickinson (1978), pp. 30-31, 33; Walter Goodwin Davis, The Ancestry of Sarah Stone (1930), pp. 103-6.
8. Pillsbury: Mary Lovering Holman, Ancestry of Charles Stinson Pillsbury and John Sargent Pillsbury, 2 vols. (1938), pp. 23-25, 28-29, 30-33, 361-372. This work covers authoritatively the entire known American ancestry of C.A. Pillsbury and his wife.
9. Chandler: George Chandler, The Chandler Family (1883), pp. 517, 899, 1215-16, and The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, vol. 40 (1955), p. 498; C.W. Bowen, op.cit., vol. 2 (1930), pp. 120 (Allard), 502-3 (Bowen), vol. 3 (1930), pp. 472-73, 477 (Child).
10. Rice: Edmund Dana Barbour, “Descendants of George Barbour” (typescript at the Society), vol. 7, 1907, pp. 3396-3400, and George Walter Chamberlain. History of Weymouth, Massachusetts (1923, vols. 3 and 4 reprinted as Genealogies of the Early Families of Weymouth, Massachusetts, (1984), vol. 4, p. 587 (Rice), vol. 3, pp. 29-30 -(Bates), 313-15 (Hunt); Waldo Chamberlain Sprague, Genealogies of the Families of Braintree, Massachusetts, 1640-1850 (microfilm. 1984), cards 2543, 2545 (Holbrook); the Register 97 (1943), pp. 12-14 (Alcock); Dean Dudley, The History of the Dudley Family (1886-94), pp. 903, 1062-63, 276 (Ruggles, Woodbridge, Dudley). For further research in primary sources in Austin on Rice’s near kinsmen in Texas, I wish to thank Mr. Robert Behra, now of St. Louis.
11. General: Although not always reliable for colonial generations, for the immediate families of Gould, Morgan, Rockefeller, Tiffany, Wharton, Field, Pillsbury, and Chandler, see Frederick A. Virkus, The Abridged Compendium of American Genealogy, vol. I (1925, reprint 1968, 1987), pp. 824-25 (Gould), 639-40 (Morgan), 783, 803 (Rockefeller), 547-48 (Tiffany), 460-61 (Wharton), 452, 599 (Field), 773 (Pillsbury), and 100 (Chandler).
For the royal descents of Rev. Peter and Grace (Chetwode) Bulkeley, Simon Lynde, Governor William Leete, Mrs. Anne Humphrey Palmes Myles, Mrs. Margaret Wyatt Allyn, Samuel Appleton, Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke, Mrs. Katherine Marbury Scott, Edward and Ellen (Newton) Carleton, Governor Thomas Dudley, and Dr. Richard Palgrave, see F.L. Weis and W.L. Sheppard, Jr., Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists, 5th ed. (1976), or (with Arthur Adams) The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, 3rd ed. (1979). For the royal ancestry of Mrs. Jane Allen Bulkeley, Griffith and Margaret (Fleming) Bowen, and Thomas Bressie, see the bibliography of post-1960 studies on royally descended New Englanders, in the April 1987 Register, plus the sources cited therein. For the royal line of Mrs. Judith Everard Appleton, see The Connecticut Nutmegger 10(1977-78):188 and the sources therein listed. Through Anne Humphrey and Edward Carleton, respectively, the Rockefellers and Pillsburys descend from Edward III, King of England, who died in 1377. Through both Peter and Grace (Chetwode) Bulkeley, both Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke and Mrs. Katharine Marbury Scott, and Dr. Richard Palgrave, the Goulds, Whartons, Lippincotts, and Rices descend from Edward I, King of England, who died in 1307. Through Thomas Bressie the Fields descend from William the Lion, King of Scotland, who died in 1214. Through Simon Lyne the Morgans descend from  David I, King of Scotland, who died in 1154. And through Samuel Appleton and both Griffith and Margaret (Fleming) Bowen, the Stillmans, Tiffanys, and Chandlers descend from Henry I, King of England, who died in 1135. Through Thomas Bressie, Governor William Leete and Samuel Appleton, respectively, the Fields, Morgans, and Stillmans also descend from Llewelyn ap Jorworth, the last sovereign Prince of Wales, who died in 1240, and possibly from his wife Joan, a daughter of John, King of England, who died in 1216.