When lands in central New York State became available for purchase
after the Revolutionary War, a flood of settlers poured into the region.
Against the background of this mass migration a tiny drama played out
in the south central part of the state involving French aristocrats
driven from their homeland during the French Revolution. In the style of
traditional immigration stories, but with a twist, I relate this tale
of three Maries who sailed to Philadelphia to start a new life. These
were the three wealthy d'Ohet sisters, Marie Jaene (d'Ohet) d'Autremont,
Marie Genevieve (d'Ohet) LeFevre, and Marie Claudine d'Ohet. My tale
also includes brief mention of a few non-noble characters for
decoration, namely Victor du Pont de Nemours and Capt. Joseph Juliand.
My information comes from several sources123456
and is, by turns, ambiguous, contradictory, or wrong. In the process of
attempting to corroborate these "family myths" with readily available
primary records, it becomes apparent that the events were not as tidy as
related in these county histories.
The Three MariesUnless a specific source is given, the
information comes from one or more of the six references noted in the
previous paragraph. Most of the substantiating data are available on
various county web pages within the New York
Marie Jaene d'Ohet (1745 - August 29, 1809 or January 28, 1810)
married Hubert d'Autremont, February 3 or 5, 1770, and bore him three
sons, Alexander Hubert, Louis Paul, and Augustus Francois Cecile. Hubert
d'Autremont was guillotined early in the French Revolution.
Marie Genevieve d'Ohet (1752 - August 23, 1834) married Antonine
Bartholemy Louie LeFevre (? - February 1, 1830). They had two sons
(Alexander and one who died young) and two daughters (Cecilia and
Of the three Maries, the least is known about Marie Claudine d'Ohet
(1758 - January 10, 1810). She was a nun in France whose convent had
been destroyed during the revolution. She moved to Nantes then sailed to
New York in 1806 and came to her sister's home in Angelica. She died
there January 10, 1810, age 52.
The VoyageOn June 19, 1792, Marie Jaene d'Autremont, her
three sons, and her brother-in-law LeFevre were among a group of
refugees who sailed with Charles Felix de Boulogne from Le Harve to
Philadelphia. According to tradition, LeFevre's passport allowed only
himself, one daughter, and one son to leave the country. The son died
shortly before sailing, so the other daughter was smuggled aboard in his
stead. Marie Genevieve LeFevre and their remaining son, Alexander7,
followed two years later.
I searched for Boulogne, d'Autremont, LeFevre, and DuPont in Filby's Passenger
and Immigration Lists Index, but found no record of a 1792 voyage
from France to Philadelphia. There is, however, an arrival in 1796 of
Louis Paul d'Autremont8.
The Butternut Settlement Charles Felix de Boulogne9
is variously termed an agent of the land speculators or the leader of
the colony in the sources cited. Through his efforts the group acquired a
tract of nearly 25 square miles, purchased in 1792 from patentees
Malachi Treat and the ubiquitous Robert Morris. The best estimate of the
location of this land is the juncture of Butternut Creek and the
Unadilla River in Chenango Co. This junction is today in the town of
Greene, about two miles north of exit 9 on U.S. Interstate 88. Smith
(ref 6) lists LeFevre and Boulogne (but not d'Autremont) as new arrivals
in 1793, as well as Shamont, Bravo, DuVernet, and Obre. Other sources
say the group, headed by Boulogne, arrived in October 1792.This
first "Butternut" settlement was not successful. Several sources speak
of aristocrats unable to cope with building shelter, planting crops, and
spending a pitiful winter in a drafty one-room log cabin. Their
hardships were compounded by a questionable title to the land, their
inability to make payments, and the death of Boulogne. All of these
circumstances led to them leaving in 1794 or 1795 to join a more
successful French settlement farther south in Bradford County, PA,
The Asylum Settlement and the Return to FranceOn the Bradford
County, PA web page, I found a listing for taxables in 1796
containing both Widow d'Autremont and Anthony B. Lafevre, as well as
Oliver Dodge. In 1797, middle son Alexander Hubert d'Autremont (March
12, 1776 - April 4 or August 1857), married Abigail, daughter of Major
Oliver Dodge of Terrytown, four miles below Asylum on the Susquehanna
Meanwhile in France, Napoleon staged a successful coup d'etat in
November of 1799. In 1800, he granted amnesty to the aristocrats who
fled during the Revolution and promised the restoration of their
estates. Many of the émigrés returned to France. Louis Paul d'Autremont
(November 7, 1770 - 1860), eldest son of Marie, returned to Paris and
took a wife. He died in 1840, leaving one daughter who married a man
named Bridet. Her two sons took their mother's maiden name, d'Autremont
by decree of the Emperor in 1852.
Marie Jaene d'AutremontMarie Jaene d'Autremont reportedly
returned to the Butternut location in Chenango County with her two
younger sons. However I found no evidence of her presence. The 1800
federal census for Chenango County does contain a record for Alexander
Dutrimone in the town of Greene (see table 1). Marie Jaeane d'Autremont
would have been 55 at the time of the census, her son Alexander would
have been 24, and her son Augustus Francois Cecile would have been 17.
The census information shows that, while this household could consist of
Alexander, his wife Abigail, his daughter, his brother Augustus, and
one other unknown male, the age of his mother does not match up. I also
found no d'Autremont, searching several spelling variants, in the 1800
census for Pennsylvania.
In 1806, Marie Jaene apparently bought land from Philip Church on the
western frontier on the Genesee River in Allegany County, town of
Angelica, where she died10.
The d'Autremont/Dautrement Sons in AngelicaRecords for the
two younger d'Autremont sons in Allegany County are relatively
plentiful. The 1808 list of freeholders for the town of Angelica lists
both Alexander and Augustus Dautrement and here they seemed to settle.
The naturalization of Augustus (1783 - 1860) is recorded in court
proceedings of June 1809. The Allegany County web site contains a list
of jurors that served between 1807 and 1810. Alexander served October
26, 1808, June 9, 1809, October 24, 1809, January 16, 1810, and June 26,
1810. Augustus served October 26, 1808 and October 23, 1810. The 1810
census (table 1) lists Alexander Deutremont and Augustus Dautimonte in
Angelica. Alexander would be about 44 years of age, his younger brother
Table 1. Extracts from 1800 and 1810 Federal Census Records, New
York StateFree white persons, including heads of families
Minard (ref 1), lists children of Alexander Dautremont and Abigail
Dodge (table 2). From this list we can account for all persons in the
1810 census record for Alexander except one male between the age of 10
and 16. I also found the 1820 record, which contains two unknown males
between the age of 16 and 26. Since Alexander is listed in the 1850
census as a 75 year old farmer11, it is likely that these
"extra" young men were farm workers. The eldest daughter Adeline is
missing in 1820. She would have been 20 and could have been married to
Ithemer Smith. There is a listing for Ithemer Smith in the town of
Covington, Genesee Co.
Table 2. Children of Alexander Dautremont and Abigail Dodge
Auguste Francois Cecile d'Autremont married Sarah Ann Stewart in
1816. One source says she was of New Castle, Delaware, and that Augustus
d'Autremont moved to Delaware to work for the DuPont brothers (see
below). She died in 1840 and he in 1860. They had the following
children, which included two sets of twins:
Table 3. Children of Augustus Dautremont and Sarah Ann Stewart
The 1820 census record for an "Agustus" Dautrimont is consistent with
husband, wife, and two youngest daughters plus five other males and one
female. Agustus turns out to be an innkeeper (1850 census12)
so these "extras" may have possibly been guests at the inn or staff.
Also readily found in the 1850 census are the following married
children of Alexander Dautremont:
Marie Genevieve (d'Ohet) LeFevreAnthony LeFevre did
not return to France, but moved his family across the river from the
now-abandoned Asylum settlement to Lime Hill where he kept an inn. In
support of this, I find in the list of taxables for 1812-13 the names
Anthony Lafevre and Alexander Lafevre. The elder daughter Cecilia
married John Prevost in 1815 and died in Wyoming Co., PA in 1876.
Augustine, the younger daughter, married John Huff; they had no
children. Anthony Lefevre died February 1, 1830, and his wife, Marie
Genevieve, died August 23, 1834.
The du Pont ConnectionVictor du Pont de Nemours, son of
Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, bought 500 acres in the Church tract
in 1806, the first deed recorded in the county. He became active in
local politics and opened a store. Some connection with the d'Autremont
family is found in the names of the children. Alexander d'Autremont
named a daughter Amelia du Pont (b. 1803), and a sonVictor du Pont (b.
1807). Augustus d'Autremont named a daughter Victorine (b. 1830). Victor
du Pont is listed as one of the freeholders in Angelica in 1808. The
store reportedly did not prosper and Victor quarreled with the local
squire, Philip Church. Victor is said to have left Angelica in 1809 to
join his brother Irenee in Delaware. This tale, however, became tangled
when I looked deeper.
The website for the DuPont Company gives a few facts regarding the
founding of the firm. On July 19, 1802, Eleuthere Irenee du Pont de
Nemours purchased property on the Brandywine River and began
construction of Eleutherian Mills. On May 1, 1804, DuPont began the
manufacture and sale of gunpowder. By 1811 DuPont was the largest
manufacturer of gunpowder in America.
However, in 1810, both brothers were involved as plaintiffs in court
cases in Angelica (Table 4). The 1820 federal census for Delaware lists
an E.J. DuPont in New Castle County, but no Victor. It seems more likely
that the two brothers jointly launched two separate business ventures,
one in New York State and one in Delaware. Were it not for the vagaries
of business acumen the DuPont name might have flourished in New York
instead of Delaware.
Table 4. Court Cases, Town of Angelica, Allegany Co., NY
Capt. Joseph Juliand - the Man Who Bought Butternut
Clarke4 tells of a Captain Joseph "Juliard," a native of
Lyons, who studied medicine, gave it up, and became commander of a
merchant ship. On a visit to America he spent some time in New Haven and
married "a girl" from that town. While living near Greenfield, Mass.,
he heard of a French colony in southern New York, and arrived as the
"Butternut" colony in Chenango Co. was breaking up. He then bought up
the entire site of the village of Greene. In support, Smith (ref 6)
lists a "Capt. Joseph Juliand, born Lycos, France, joined French Village
Although there is no Joseph Juliard recorded in the 1790
census records of Massachusetts or Connecticut, there is a Joseph Juliand
in the 1800 census of Chenango Co., town of Greene.
The 1850 census record (see table 5) for Greene, Chenango Co.,
contains the name of Hannah Juliand, 87, born in Connecticut, living in
the household of Joseph Juliand, 53, merchant, born in New York. It is
tempting to identify Hannah as the "girl" Capt. Juliand married in New
Haven, and to name the other Juliands -- Joseph, age 53, Lewis, age 46,
George, age 45, and Frederick, age 42-- as his sons. However, if so, her
age does not agree with the 1800 census record. But there is a female,
age 60-70, listed with Frederick Juliand in the 1840 census13.
This woman would be 20-30 in 1800, which is consistent with the 1800
record. This suggests that her husband, Joseph Juliand, may have died
Table 5. 1850 Federal Census Records, Town of Greene, Chenango Co,
There is a final Connecticut connection. Living in the household of
Lewis Juliand is one Joseph Bulton, 75, a merchant born in Connecticut.
This may be the Joseph Bulton listed in the 1800 federal census in the
town of Sangersfield, Chenango Co (3 M under 10; 1 M, 16-25; 2 F under
10; 1 F, 16-25). Perhaps this Joseph Bulton is living in 1850 in the
house of his married daughter and his son-in-law, Lewis Juliand. Perhaps
Lewis Juliand's son, "Jos. B," is Joseph Bulton Juliand, named after
1. Allegany County and its People, John S. Minard, W.A.
Fergusson & Co., Alfred, NY, 1896.2. Pioneer
Profiles, Arch Merrill, 1957, Rochester, NY.3. History
of the State of New York in Ten Volumes, vol 5, edited by Alexander
C. Flick; Conquering the Wilderness, Columbia University Press,
New York, 1934.4. Émigrés in the Wilderness, T.
Wood Clarke, New York, 1941.5. A Short History of
Asylum Pennsylvania, Founded in 1793 by the French Exiles in America,
J. W. Ingham, 1916.6. History of Chenango &
Madison Counties, NY, James H. Smith, 1880.7.
Alexander LeFevre reportedly enlisted in the army in the War of 1812 and
died of sickness at Carlisle, Pa.8. Passenger and
Immigration Lists Index, First Edition, Edited by P. Wm. Filby, p.
24.9. Boulogne is said to have drowned while attempting
to ford Loyal Sock Creek at Hillsgrove, Pa on July 20,1796. The water
was very high at the time. His body was recovered and buried at
Hillsgrove, Pa.10. This is the so-called "Church tract," a
six by twenty-six mile tract on the Genesee River named for Philip
Church who acquired the land in 1800. As an aside, it is possible that
the d'Autremont and Church families were well acquainted. Both were
intimately acquainted with both LaFayette and Tallyrand. Two points here
also hint at a close relationship: first, Alexander d'Autremont named
his youngest daughter Sophia Church; second, Philip Church married Anna
Matilda, eldest daughter of Gen. Walter Stewart of Philadelphia and
Augustus d'Autremont married a Sarah Ann Stewart.11. Also
listed in his household is Abigail Dautremont, age 79, born in Conn.,
presumably his wife Abigail Dodge.12. Apparently his
eldest son, Augustus Jr., followed in his father's profession. His
occupation is also that of innkeeper. Glodine, who would be age 14, is
more likely dead than married.13. All four Juliand
households are listed in the 1840 census in Chenango Co. None besides
Frederick contains any other person over the age of 50.14.
In birth records on the web site of Chenango Co. I find the birth of
Emma C. Juliand, b. April 12, 1847 to Lewis and Cornellia Juliand.15.
In birth records on the web site of Chenango Co. I find the birth of
Frederick H. Juliand b March 30, 1850 to Frederick and Catharine