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  • Notable Kin - The Flowering of New England, Part Two: The Poets Bryant, Holmes, Longfellow, J.R. Lowell, and Whittier

    Gary Boyd Roberts

    Published Date : December 1989
     In the June-August issue of NEXUS (6[1989]:108-12) I considered the mid-nineteenth century “flowering of New England” and treated the ancestry of Emerson, Hawthorne, Melville, Thoreau and Harriet Beecher Stowe. In this column I wish to cover similarly the immediate (and most of the American) ancestry, royal or Mayflower descents, presidential connections, and kinships to The Princess of Wales and her sons, and to each other, of five popular poets who also help to define this flowering -- William Cullen Bryant, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and John Greenleaf Whittier. The next “Notable Kin” column will so consider the historians Henry and Brooks Adams, George Bancroft, John Lothrop Motley, Francis Parkman, Jr., and William Hickling Prescott.

    Born between 1794 and 1819, these five poets were natives respectively of Cummington (Bryant), Cambridge (Holmes and Lowell), Portland, Maine (Longfellow) and Haverhill (Whittier). Holmes and Lowell were Harvard graduates of 1829 and 1838; Longfellow, a Bowdoin graduate of 1825, was professor of modem languages and belles-lettres at Harvard, 1835-54; and Bryant attended Williams for a year, and later read law. Bryant was the son of a physician, and Whittier of a Quaker farmer. Longfellow’s father was a lawyer and Maine congressman, and Holmes and Lowell were the sons of Boston-area ministers, pastors respectively of the First Church of Cambridge and the West Church (Unitarian) of Boston. Bryant’s youngest brother, Holmes’s father and son (the jurist Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.), Longfellow’s father, maternal grandfather, brother, nephew and son (Ernest Wadsworth Longfellow, a painter) and Lowell's paternal grandfather, two half-uncles, and brother (the first Robert Traill Spence Lowell) are all treated in the Dictionary of American Biography .

    Holmes and Lowell by birth, and Longfellow by his marriage to Frances Elizabeth Appleton (his second wife) belonged to leading “Boston Brahmin” families. Holmes, the “Autocrat of the Breakfast Table,” also a famed Lyceum lecturer and medical professor at Harvard, was a second cousin of Wendell Phillips, the orator and reformer, a third cousin once removed and fourth cousin respectively, via Cogswells, of Presidents John (Jr.) and John Quincy Adams, a fourth cousin once removed, via Bradstreets, of William Ellery Channing and the elder Richard Henry Dana, and the father of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., the jurist. The poet’s wife, and the jurist’s mother, moreover, was Amelia Lee Jackson, also her husband’s second cousin, via Jackson. Amelia’s father, Charles Jackson, a noted lawyer and judge, was a brother of both James Jackson, the Harvard medical professor largely responsible for founding Massachusetts General Hospital, and Patrick Tracy Jackson, the textile manufacturer who helped to found Lowell, Massachusetts and the Boston and Lowell Railroad. P.T. Jackson’s major partners were his brother-in-law, Francis Cabot Lowell, husband of Hannah Jackson and one of the above-noted half-uncles of James Russell Lowell treated in the Dictionary of American Biography , and Nathan Appleton, father-in-law of Longfellow. Another aunt of Mrs. Holmes, Mary Jackson, married noted Boston merchant Henry Lee and was the maternal grandmother of philanthropist Henry Lee Higginson, founder of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Mrs. Holmes’s mother, moreover, was Fanny Cabot, aunt of Lydia Dodge Cabot, wife of the theologian Theodore Parker; niece of U.S. Senator George Cabot; first cousin of Elizabeth Cabot, wife of Harvard president John Thornton Kirkland; and first cousin twice removed of the first Henry Cabot Lodge (who was thus a third cousin of his friend O.W. Holmes, Jr.).

    James Russell Lowell, grandson of Judge John Lowell, Jr., half-nephew of Federalist pamphleteer John Lowell (III) and textile manufacturer Francis Cabot Lowell, half-first cousin of John Lowell, founder of the Lowell Institute, half- or full first cousin once removed of another Judge John Lowell and historian Edward Jackson Lowell, half- or full first cousin twice removed of astronomer Percival Lowell, Harvard prosident Abbott Lawrence Lowell, poet Amy Lowell, and architect Guy Lowell, was also a great-great-uncle of the poet Robert (Traill Spence) Lowell (IV); a great-great-great-uncle of presidential advisor and foundation president McGeorge Bundy; a first cousin once removed of John Lowell Gardner, Jr., whose wife was the Boston social leader and art collector Mrs. Isabella Stewart Gardner, builder of Fenway Court; a first cousin three times removed of Mariana Lowell, wife of philosopher and critic Jacques Barzun; and a great-great-nephew of William Whipple, Jr., New Hampshire signer of the Declaration of Independence. Longfellow’s first wife, Mary Storer Potter, was a great-great-niece of U.S. Constitution signer John Langdon, Jr. (for both Whipple and Langdon see NEXUS 3[1986]:291-94). Longfellow’s second wife, daughter of the above-named Nathan Appleton, congressman and treasurer of the Boston Athenaeum, [203] niece of Boston merchant and philanthropist Samuel Appleton, and sister of literary figure Thomas Gold Appleton, was a first cousin once removed of Caroline LeRoy Appleton, whose second husband was French soldier Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, Jr., great-nephew of Emperor Napoleon I; a second cousin of both Jane Means Appleton and Sarah Elizabeth Appleton, wives respectively of U.S. President Franklin Pierce and Amos Adams Lawrence, textile manufacturer, educational philanthropist, and treasurer of the Emigrant Aid Society; and a second cousin once removed of Julia Amory Appleton, wife of architect Charles Follen McKim (of McKim, Mead & White).

    All five of these poets, including the Brahmin-connected Holmes, Longfellow and Lowell, share ancestors with millions of contemporary Americans, including many NEXUS readers. All five were related to at least one other among the 10 figures covered to date in this "flowering of New England” series; at least three had forebears from geographically distinct parts of New England, and two -- Holmes, via the Dutch Wendells, and Lowell, via Spences and Traills from the Orkney Islands -- had immediate ancestors who were not New Englanders. Bryant’s forebears, centered in Bridgewater and Plymouth Colony and County, include Mayflower passengers John Alden and Priscilla Mullins, her parents William and Alice Mullins, and Francis Cooke. Via Alden, Cooke’s Leyden parents-in-law, (Jacques?) and Jeanne le Mahieu, or Cooke’s son-in-law Experience Mitchell (the poet’s ancestor through, almost certainly, both his wives), Bryant is a kinsman of Presidents John (Jr.) and John Quincy Adams (a third cousin twice removed and fourth cousin once removed respectively), Granc. Taft, F.D. Roosevelt and Bush. Experience Mitchell's parents, Thomas Mitchell and Margaret Williams, English residents of Leyden, are also, almost certainly, ancestors of The Princess of Wales and her son. Experience and Mary (___) Mitchell were also ancestors of Thoreau (Bryant’s fourth cousin once removed) and the Aldens, as noted below, of Longfellow.

    Holmes, of royal descent through Governor Thomas Dudley of Massachusetts and Mrs. Elizabeth Coytmore Tyng of Boston, shares descent from Samuel Bishop and Hester Cogswell with The Princess of Wales and her sons (Holmes was a third cousin of Dr. Joseph Strong, the Princess’s New England “gateway ancestor”), and via Cogswells of Ipswich, Lathrops of Barnstable and Norwich, Connecticut, or Mrs. Katherine Miles Gray Coytmore of Charlestown, is a cousin of the two Adamses, Grant, Coolidge, F. D. Roosevelt and Bush. Other ancestors of interest include Massachusetts governor Simon Bradstreet, the poet Mrs. Anne Dudley Bradstreet, his wife, colonial magistrate Daniel Gookin, New York City mayor Thomas Willett, and sisters of Rev. John Eliot, the “Apostle to the Indians” and Leonard Hoar, third president of Harvard College. John and Elizabeth (Thompson) Cogswell were also ancestors of Emerson and Hawthorne (both fifth cousins of Holmes), Gookin was an ancestor of Melville (also Holmes’s fifth cousin), and Rev. John Lathrop and Mrs. Coytmore, as noted below, were ancestors of Longfellow and Lowell respectively.

    Longfellow’s ancestors include Mayflower passengers John Alden and Priscilla Mullins, plus her parents; William Brewster and Mary ___; John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley, plus her parents also; Henry Sampson; and Richard Warren. Through the Aldens, Brewster, John Howland or his parents, Warren, or Longfellow’s Lathrop, Pope or Sewall forebears the poet is a cousin of the two Presidents Adams, Zach Taylor, Grant, Cleveland, F. D. Roosevelt, Nixon, Ford and Bush. One of Longfellow’s great-grandmothers, Mrs. Tabitha Bragdon Longfellow, of early Maine ancestry, was an aunt of U.S. Constitution signer Rufus King (for whom see also NEXUS 3[1986]:291-94); another great-grandmother, Mrs. Patience King Young, of Kittery, Maine at the time of her marriage (1727), is to date I think, of unproved parentage. John and Elizabeth (Tilley) Howland were also ancestors o Emerson (Longfellow’s sixth cousin), Richard and Elizabeth (___) Warren were also ancestors of Thoreau (Longfellow’s sixth cousin and sixth cousin once removed), John and Priscilla (Mullins) Alden were also ancestors of Bryant (Longfellow’s fifth cousin once removed, twice over) and Rev. John and Hanna (House) Lathrop were also ancestors of Holmes (Longfellow’s fifth cousin).

    James Russell Lowell was of royal descent through the immigrants Samuel and Judith (Everard) Appleton of Ipswich and George Curwen of Salem; shares his ancestor Robert Blott with The Princess of Wales and her Sons; and via Mrs. Katherine Miles Gray Coyt more or the Shermans of Dedham, Essex is a kinsman of Presidents J. Q. Adams (Lowell's half-sixth cousin), Taft, Coolidge, Hoover, F. D. Roosevelt, and Bush. Via the immigrants Percival and Rebecca (___) Lowell, J.R. Lowell and Melville were half-fifth cousins once me-moved and sixth cousins; via John and Susanna (___) Whipple of Ipswich, Lowell and Hawthorne were fifth cousins once removed; via Mrs. Katherine Miles Gray Coytmore, Lowell and Holmes were half-sixth cousins; and via Robert Blott and the Shermans, Lowell and Harriet Beecher Stowe were both sixth cousins once removed and eighth cousin. Among the Orkney ancestors of Lowell's mother, whose father and maternal grandfather were immigrants from Kirkwall, available printed sources outline a descent, via Traill of Westness, Balfour of Pharay, and Moodie of Breckness, from James Stewart of Graemsay, illegitimate son of Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney, himself an illegitimate son of James V, King of Scots, and half-brother of Mary, Queen of Scots. A full monograph on this intriguing and likely descent would be welcome.

    John Greenleaf Whittier, of largely Essex County, Massachusetts and New Hampshire ancestry, was a fourth cousin once removed, via Greenleafs, of Melville, and via Coffins or Trasks a kinsman of Presidents Taft, Coolidge, and Ford. Other ancestors of note include Nantucket “ur-father” Tristram Coffin, mentioned in several previous “Notable Kin” colunms; Josiah and Eleanor (___) Boyce, identified in NEXUS 5 (1988):96-97 as ancestors of Jennie Jerome and Sir Winston Churchill; and the piously named Hatevil Nutter of Dover, New Hampshire.

    [204]
    Thus two of these poets -- Holmes and Lowell --were of royal descent; two others -- Bryant and Longfellow -- were descendants of Mayflower passengers; three -- Bryant, Holmes, and Lowell -- share ancestors with The Princess of Wales and her sons; and all five were kinsmen of American presidents -- Bryant, Holmes and Lowell of six each, Longfellow of nine, and Whittier of three. And once more I noted kinships (except for Longfellow’s to Taylor via Brewster) only through forebears of two or more presidents. Considering Emerson, Hawthorne, Melville, Thoreau, Mrs. Stowe and these five poets as a unit often figures, Holmes shared ancestors with five others, Emerson, Longfellow and Lowell with four, Hawthorne and Melville with three, Thoreau, Mrs. Stowe and Bryant with two, and Whittier with one. Outlined below, in the customary format for this column, is the known ancestry of Bryant, Holmes, Longfellow, Lowell and Whittier for six generations (parents, grandparents, great-, great-great-, and great-great-great-grandparents, following the poet’s name and birth and death years, with semi-colons separating generations and commas separating couples in the same generation from the poet), with extensions to earlier generations to include all ancestors mentioned above. As before “RD’ indicates an ancestor of royal descent, “MP” a Mayflower passenger, “PW” a forebear shared with The Princess of Wales, “TP” an ancestor of two or three presidents (as charted in Ancestors of American Presidents ), and “FP” an ancestor of four or five presidents.

    1. WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT, 1794-1878: Peter Bryant & Sarah Snell; Philip Bryant & Silence Howard, Ebenezer Snell & Sarah Packard; Ichabod Bryant & Ruth Staples, Abiel Howard & Silence Washburn, Zachariah Snell & Abigail Hayward, Abiel Packard & Sarah Ames; Stephen Bryanc. Jr. & Mehitable ___, John Staples & Hannah ___, Jonathan Howard & Susanna Keith, Nehemiah Washburn & Jane Howard, Josiah Snell & Anna Alden, Joseph Hayward & Hannah Mitchell, Zaccheus Packard & Sarah Howard, John Ames, Jr. & Sarah Washburn; Stephen Bryant & Abigail Shaw, Joseph Staples & Mary Macomber, John Howard & Martha Hayward (parents of Jonathan, Ephraim & Sarah), James Keith & Susanna Edson (parents of Susanna & Mary), Samuel Washburn & Deborah Packard, Ephraim Howard & Mary Keith (parents of Jane), Thomas Snell & Martha Harris, Jonathan Alden & Abigail Hallett, Thomas Hayward & Susanna Towne (parents of Joseph & Martha), Experience Mitchell (TP) & Mary ___ (parents of Hannah), Samuel Packard & Elizabeth ___ (parents of Zaccheus & Deborah), John Ames & Sarah Willis, John Washburn, Jr. & Elizabeth Mitchell (parents of Sarah & Samuel); John Alden (MP, TP) & Priscilla Mullins (MP, TP), Thomas Mitchell (TP, PW) & Margaret Williams (TP, PW) (parents of Experience), Experience Mitchell (TP) & Jane Cooke, his first wife (parents of Elizabeth); William Mullins (MP, TP) & Alice ___ (MP, TP), Francis Cooke (MP, TP) & Hester le Mahieu (TP); (Jacques?) le Mahieu (TP) & Jeanne ___ (TP).

    2. OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, 1809-1894: Abiel Holmes & Sarah Wendell; David Holmes, Jr. & Temperance Bishop, Oliver Wendell & Mary Jackson; David Holmes & Bathshua Sanford, John Bishop & Temperance Lathrop, Jacob Wendell & Sarah Oliver, Edward Jackson & Dorothy Quincy; John Holmes & Hannah Newell, Thomas Sanford & Christian ___, Samuel Bishop (PW) & Hester Cogswell (PW), Joseph Lathrop & Elizabeth Waterhouse, Johannes Wendell & Elizabeth Staets, James Oliver & Mercy Bradstreet, Jonathan Jackson, Jr. & Mary Salter, Edmund Quincy III & Dorothy Flint; David Holmes & Joan ___, Isaac Newell & Elizabeth Curtis, Robert Sanford & Elizabeth Skelton, Thomas Bishop (PW) & Margaret ---- (PW), William Cogswell (PW, TP) & Susanna Hawkes (PW, TP), Samuel Lathrop (TP) & Elizabeth Scudder (TP) Isaac Waterhouse & Sarah Pratt, Evert Janse Wendell & Susanna Du Trieux, Abraham Staets & Katrina Jochenise, Peter Oliver & Sarah Newgate, Samuel Brad-street & Mercy Tyng, Jonathan Jackson & Elizabeth Baker, Jabez Salter & Elizabeth ___, Edmund Quincy, Jr. & Elizabeth Gookin, Josiah Flint & Esther Willett; William Curtis & Sarah Eliot (sister of Rev. John Eliot, the “Apostle to the Indians”), John Cogswell (PW, TP) Elizabeth Thompson (PW, TP), Adam Hawkes (PW, TP) & Ann (Brown?) (PW, TP), John Lathrop (TP) & Hannah House (TP), Governor Simon Bradstreet & Anne Dudley, poet, William Tyng (TP) & Elizabeth Coytmore (TP, RD) Daniel Gookin & Mary Dolling, Henry Flint & Marge Hoar (sister of Rev. Leonard Hoar, 3rd president of Harvard College), Thomas Willett, mayor of New Yor City, & Mary Brown; Governor Thomas Dudley of Massachusetts (RD) & Dorothy York, Rowland Coytmore (TP, RD) & Katherine Miles (TP).

    3. HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW, 1807-1882: Stephen Longfellow IV & Zilpah Wadsworth; Stephen Longfellow III & Patience Young; Peleg Wadsworth, Jr. & Elizabeth Bartlett; Stephen Longfellow, Jr. & Tabitha Bragdon, Job Young, Jr. & Patience King, Peleg Wadsworth & Susannah Sampson, Samuel Bartlett & Elizabeth Lathrop; Stephen Longfellow & Abigail Tompson, Samuel Bragdon III & Tabitha Banks, Job Young & Sarah Austin, John Wadsworth, Jr. & Mercy Wiswall, John Sampson & Priscilla Bartlett, Joseph Bartlett, Jr. & Lydia Griswold, Thomas Lathrop & Experience Gorham; William Longfellow & Anne Sewall, Edward Tompson & Sarah Samuel Bragdon, Jr. & Isabella Austin, Joseph Banks & Elizabeth Harmon, Rowland Young & Joan Knight, Matthew Austin & Mary Davis (parents of Sarah & Isabella), John Wadsworth & Abigail Andrews, Ichabod Wiswall & Priscilla Pabodie, Stephen Sampson & Elizabeth ___, Benjamin Bartlett, Jr. & Ruth Pabodie (parents of Priscilla), Joseph Bartlett & Hannah Pope, Francis Griswold & ___, Joseph Lathrop & Mary Ansell, James Gorham & Hannah Huckins; Henry Sewall, Jr. (TP) & Jane Dummer (TP), William Pabodie & Elizabeth Alden (parents of Priscilla & Ruth), Henry Sampson (MP) & Anne Plummer, Benjamin Bartlett & Sarah Brewster, Robert Bartlett & Mary Warren (parents of Joseph & Benjamin), Thomas Pope (TP) & Ann Fallowell, John Lathrop (TP) & Hannah House (TP), [205] John Gorham & Desire Howland; John Alden (MP, TP) & Priscilla Mullins (MP, TP), Love Brewster (MP) & Sarah Collier, Richard Warren (MP, TP) & Elizabeth ___ (TP), John Howland (MP, TP) & Elizabeth Tilley (MP, TP); William Mullins (MP, TP) & Alice ___ (MP, TP), William Brewster (MP) & Mary ___ (MP), Henry Howland (FP) & Margaret ___ (FP), John Tilley (MP, TP) & Joan Hurst (MP,TP).

    4. JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL, 1819-1891: Charles Lowell & Harriet Brackett Spence; John Lowell, Jr. & Rebecca Russell, Keith Spence & Mary Whipple Trail; John Lowell & Sarah Champney, James Russell & Katharine Graves, James Spence & Janet Blaw, Robert Traill & Mary Whipple; Ebenezer Lowell & Elizabeth Shailer, Noah Champney & Sarah Turell, Daniel Russell & Rebecca Chambers, Thomas Graves III & Sybil Avery, William Blaw & Mary Traill, William Traill & Isabel Fea, William Whipple & Mary Cutts; John Lowell, Jr. & Naomi Torrey, Michael Shailer & Sarah ___, Daniel Champney & Dorcas Bridge, Joseph Turell & Sarah Sumner, James Russell & Abigail Curwen, Charles Chambers & Rebecca Patefield, Thomas Graves, Jr. & Sarah Stedman, Jonathan Avery & Sybil Sparhawk, William Traill & Barbara Balfour (parents of William), William Fea & ___, Matthew Whipple & Joanna Appleton, Robert Cutts, Jr. & Dorcas Hammond; John Lowell & Mary ___, Daniel Turell & Lydia Blott, George Curwen (RD) & Elizabeth Herbert, Thomas Graves & Katherine Gray, Nathaniel Sparhawk, Jr. & Patience Newman, George Balfour & Marjorie Baikie, John Whipple, Jr. & Martha Reyner, Samuel Appleton, Jr. & Mary Oliver; Percival Lowell & Rebecca ___ (parents of John & Joanna), Robert Blott (PW) & ___ (PW), Thomas Gray & Katherine Miles (TP), Nathaniel Sparhawk & Mary Angler, Patrick Balfour & Barbara Moodie, John Whipple & Susanna ___ (parents of John, Jr., and Mrs. Elizabeth Whipple Potter, ancestress of Nathaniel Hawthorne), Samuel Appleton (RD) & Judith Everard (RD), John Oliver & Joanna Lowell; John Angler & Anne Sherman, Francis Moodie & Margaret Stewart; Edmund Sherman & Anne Pellatte, James Stewart of Graemsay & ___; Henry Sherman (TP) & Agnes (Butter?) (TP), (illegitimate) Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney, & Janet Robertson; (illegitimate ) James V, King of Scots, & Eupheme Elphinstone.

    5. JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER, 1807-1892: John Whittier & Abigail Hussey; Joseph Whittier, Jr. & Sarah Greenleaf, Samuel Hussey & Mercy Evans; Joseph Whittier & Mary Peasley, Nathaniel Greenleaf & Judith Coffin, Joseph Hussey & Elizabeth Robinson, Joseph Evans, Jr. & Elizabeth Hanson; Thomas Whittier & Ruth Green, Joseph Peasley, Jr. & Ruth Barnard, Tristram Greenleaf & Margaret Piper, Stephen Coffin & Sarah Atkinson, Richard Hussey & Jane ___, Timothy Robinson, Jr. & Mary Roberts, Joseph Evans & Mercy Home, Benjamin Hanson & Elizabeth Trask; Richard Whittier & Mary Rolfe, Joseph Peasley & Thomas Barnard & Elinor ___, Stephen Greenleaf & Elizabeth Coffin, Nathaniel Piper & Sarah ___, Tristram Coffin, Jr. & Judith Greenleaf, John Atkinson & Sarah Myrick, Timothy Robinson & Mary Kitchen, John Roberts & Abigail Nutter, Robert Evans & Ann Thompson, William Home & Elizabeth Clough, Tobias Hanson & Elizabeth Boyce, William Trask, Jr. & Anna Edmund Greenleaf & Sarah Moore (parents of Stephen & Judith), Tristram Coffin & Dionis Stevens (parents of Elizabeth & Tristram, Jr.), Hatevil Nutter & ___, Joseph Boyce & Eleanor ___, William Trask (TP) & Sarah ___ (TP); Peter Coffin (TP) & Joan Kettiber (TP).

    SOURCES:

    1. Bryant: Tenney Smith, Charles Smith and Rachel Amy Bryant: Their Ancestors and Descendants (1938), PP. 124, 126- 27, 129, 132-33, 139-40, 229-30, 106 (Bryant Shaw, Ames); J.C. Frost, Ancestors of Amyutas Show and His Wife Lucy Tufts Williams (1920), pp. 65-66, 77-78 (Staples, Macomber); Heman Howard, The Howard Genealogy (1903), pp. 1-5, 7-9, 15-16; C.A. Edson, Edson Family History and Genealogy , vol. 1 (1969?), pp. 28-43 (Keith, Edson); R.S. Wakefield, R.V. Wood, Jr., and others, Francis Cooke of the Mayflower and His Descendants for Four Generations, 2nd ed. (1987), pp. 1-3, 9-iC 40-41,45 (Cooke, Mitchell, Washburn, Ames); E.B. Sumner, Ancestry and Descendants of Samuel Bartlett and Lucy Jenkins (1951). PP. 79-81, 55-58, 72-74, 130-31 (Packard, Hayward, Mitchell, Willis); Register 100(1946):336-37 (Snell), 102(1948): 82-86 (Alden); Alicia C. Williams, Families of the Pilgrims: John Alden/William Mullins, 2nd ed. (1986), pp. 1-4, 8-9; TAG 59(1983):28-31 (Mitchell). See also, for an early overview of much of Bryant’s ancestry, Nahum Mitchell, History of the Early Settlement of Bridgwater (1840, reprint with index 1983) sections on the Bryant Howard, Hayward, Keith, Edson, Washburn, Mitchell, Packard, Snell, Ames and Willis families, most of which data have, however, been superseded by the above.

    2. Holmes: C.W. Bowen, The History of Woodstock, Connecticut: Genealogies of Woodstock Families, vol. 7 (1943), pp. 83-86, 89-90,93-95, 98-101 (Holmes); Belle Preston, Bassett-Preston Ancestors (1930), pp. 197-98, 77-78,94-96 (Newell, Curtis, Eliot); C.E. Sanford, Thomas Sanford, The Emigrant to New England, vol. 2 (1911), pp. 1394-95; E.F. Waterman and D.L. Jacobus, The Granberry Family and Allied Families (1945), PP. 169-71, 199-200, 249-50 (Bishop, Cogswell, Hawkes), G.B. Roberts and W.A. Reitwiesner, American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales (1984), pp. 26-31,45 and various sources cited therein, esp. Ethel F. Smith, Adam Hawkes of Saugus, Mass., 1605-1672: The First Six Generations in America (1980), pp. 1-31 (Bishop, Cogswell, Hawkes), plus Vital Records of Norwich, 1659-1848, Part 1(1913), pp. 82, 307 (Bishop); E.B. Huntington, A Genealogical Memoir of the Lo-Lathrop Family (1884, reprint 1971), pp. 23-24, 38-40, 48. 62, and Dwight Brainerd and D.L. Jacobus, Ancestry of Thomas Chalmers Brainerd (1948), pp. 196-202, 166-67, 255-56 (Lathrop, House, Scudder); G.H. Waterhouse, “Descendants of Richard Waterhouse of Portsmouth, N.H., with Notes on the Descendants of Jacob Waterhouse of New London, Conn., Joshua Waterhouse of New Jersey, and Others,” 3 vols. (1934, typescript at the Society), pp. 1573-75; E.E. Salisbury, Family Memorials, 2 vols. (1885), Wendell, Quincy and Gookin chapters, passim, and pedigrees, and J.R. Stanwood, The Direct Ancestry of the Late Jacob Wendell of Portsmouth, New Hampshire (1882), pp. 18-23 (Wendell, Du Trieux, Staets Jochemse); W.H. Whitmore, A Brief Genealogy of the Descendants of William Hutchinson and Thomas Oliver (1865), pp. 25-28 (Oliver) and E.E. and E.MC. Salisbury, Family-Histories and Genealogies, 3 vols. (1892), Newdigate chapter, esp. p. 484; Dean Dudley, The History of the Dudley Family , 2 vols. (1894-98), pp. 276, 659-75, 104041, 780 (Dudley, Bradstreet, Oliver, Wendell, Holmes); TAG 32(1956):9-19 (Tyng, Coytmore), reprinted in N.D. Thompson and R.C. Anderson, A [206] Tribute to John Insley Coddington (1980), pp. 136-143, 146-48; S.C. Paine and C.H. Pope, Paine Ancestry: The Family of Robert Treat Paine, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, Including Maternal Lines (1912), pp. 132-76 (Jackson, Baker, Salter, Quincy, Gookin, Flint, Hoar, Willett, Brown -- the entire known American ancestry of Mrs. Mary Jackson Wendell, the poet’s maternal grandmother; this work also covers the entire known American ancestry of Amelia Lee Jackson, the poet’s wife); V.M. Meyer and J.F. Dorman, Adventurers of Purse and Person: Virginia, 1607-1624/5, 3rd ed. (1987), pp. 310-16 (Gookin) and A.J. Willett, The Willett Families of North America. vol. 1(1985), pp. 1-15.

    3. Longfellow: W.M. Emery, Newell Ancestry: The Story of the Antecedents of William Stark Newell (1944), pp. 204-10 (Longfellow, Sewall, Dummer, Tompson, Shepard), 84-95, 103-5 (Bartlett, Warren, Pope, Fallowell, Griswold, Lathrop, Gorham, Howland, Tilley, Hucklns); M.H. Thomas, ed., The Diary of Samuel Sewall, 1674-1729, Volume II, 1709-1729 (1973), genealogical appendix, pp. 1071-75, 1083-84; H.M. Pitman and K.P.B. Hunt, Boyd-Patterson Ancestry (1967), pp. 33-35, 92,26, 4647, 28, 24, 64-65,45,31-32 (Bragdon, Moulton, Austin, Davis, Banks, Alcock, Harmon, Cummings, Bonython, the entire known ancestry of Mrs. Tabitha Bragdon Longfellow); Sybil Noyes, C.T. Libby and W.G. Davis, Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire (1928-39, reprint 1972, henceforth GDMNH), pp. 775-76,404-5 (Young, Knight); H.A. Wadsworth, 250 Years of the Wadsworth Family in America (1883), pp. 164,202, 224-25, Belle Preston, Bassett-Preston Ancestors (1930), pp. 305-6, 7 (Wadsworth, Andrews); V.M. Turner and E.R. Woodworth, Alden Genealogy (1935), pp. 4-36,72-73, 76-77, 158, 170-71 (Alden, Pabodie, Wiswall, Bartlett, Wadsworth, Sampson); The Genealogist (New York) 6(1985):166-86 (on the baronial ancestry of Mayflower passenger Henry Sampson, through whom a royal descent for Longfellow may eventually be developed) and J.A. Vinton, The Giles Memorial (1864), pp. 374-77, 381 (Sampson); R.S. Wakefield, J.A. Beebe and others, Richard Warren of the Mayflower and His Descendants for Four Generations, 3rd ed. (1989), pp. 1-2, 6-8, 10,33-34, 42; M.E. Terry and A.B. Harding, A Notebook on the Descendants of Elder William Brewster of Plymouth Colony (1985), pp. 1-3,7-8, 29, 109; E.F. Waterman and D.L. Jacobus, The Waterman Family, vol. 1(1939), pp. 665-68 (Griswold); H.S. Gorham, "The Gorham Family”, typescript at the Society, vol. 1 (1931), pp. 2-9, 16, 69-69a, vol. 2 (1932), p. 74, and vol. 4 (1932), Pp. 101-101a (Gorham, Lathrop, Bartlett, Wadsworth; The Howland Quarterly 28, nos. 2 and 3 (January-April 1964), 6-7 and TAG 52(1976): 198-205 (Tilley).

    4. Lowell: Harrison Ellery and C.P. Bowditch, The Pickering Genealogy, 3 vols. (1897), accompanying manuscript ancestor tables, vol. 1, p. 46, and vol. 2, p. 14471 (the poet’s entire ancestry for 8 generations, well done for the period, but containing a few errors and omissions); W.G. Davis, The Ancestry of Phoebe Tilton (1947), pp. 207-24 (Lowell) and D.R. Lowell, The Historic Genealogy of the Lowells in America (1899), pp. 1-18, 22-24,34-35, 58-65, 119-123; F.C. Torrey, The Torrey Families and Their Children in America. vol. 1 (1924), pp. 14- 17, 35-36; Boston vital records (1687 birth of William Shailer, 1704 birth of Sarah Champney, 1701 marriage of Noah Champney and Sarah Turell); L.R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877 (1877, reprint 1986), pp. 506-7, 661-62 (Champney, Stedman), and W.D. Bridge, Genealogy of the John Bridge Family in America. 1632-1924, rev. ed. (1924), pp. 1, 5-6, 43, 64 (Bridge and Champney); R.D. Weeks, Genealogy of the Family of George Weeks of Dorchester, Mass. (1885), p. 133 (Turell, Sumner), E.B. Sumner, Descendants of Thomas Farr of Harpswell, Maine, and 90 Allied Families (1959), pp. 283-84, 32-33 (Turell, Blott), and W.S. Appleton, Record of the Descendants of William Sumner of Dorchester, Mass., 1636 (1879), pp. 1-2 (Sumner); T.B. Wyman, The Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown, Massachusetts, 1629-1818 (1879, reprint 1982), pp. 829-33, 481, 199-200, 731, 432-34, 40 (Russell, Hathorne-Curwen, Chambers, Patefield, Graves, Gray, Avery); Sidney Perley, The History of Salem, Massachusetts, Volwne II, 1638-1670(1926, henceforth PS2), pp. 37-38 (Curwen), TAG 32(1956):14 (Miles, Gray), S.P. Avery, The Warren, Little, Lothrop, Park, Dix, Whitman, Fairchild, Platt, Wheeler, Lane and Avery Pedigrees of Samuel Putnam Avery, 1847-1920 (1925), pp. 213-18 (Avery), C.H.C. Howard, Materials for a Genealogy of the Sparhawk Family in New England (1892), pp. 3-7, 10, 22, 44-45, 61-62, 91-92 (Spar-hawk, Avery, Graves, Russell, Lowell), W.G. Davis, The Ancestry of Abel Lunt (1963), pp. 163-69 (Angier) and Bertha L. Stratton, Transatlantic Shermans (1969); The New Hampshire Genealogical Record 4(1907): 1-6 (Traill, Spence), William Traill, A Genealogical Account of the Traills of Orkney (1883), pp. 73-76 esp., H.L. Norton Smith, A Collection of Armorials o the County of Orkney (1902), pp. 13-14, 138 esp. (Balfour, Moodie, Stewart), and Sir J.B. Paul, The Scots Peerage, vol. 6 (1909), pp. 572-77 (Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney), Scottish sources, which I should much like to see amplified, that suggest the descent from King James V; C.H.C. Howard, Genealogy of the Cutts Family in America (1892), pp. 11-12, 18, 29, 53, 106, 215-16, 360 (Cutts, Whipple, Traill, Spence, Lowell); NEXUS 3(1986):291-94 and sources cited on p. 293 under the signer William Whipple, Jr., covering the entire known American ancestry of his sister, Mrs. Mary Whipple Traill.

    5. Whittier: C.C. and EQ. Whittier, The Descendants of Thomas Whittier and Ruth Green of Salisbury and Haverhill, Massachusetts (1937), pp. 13, 15, 17, 23-24, 36-39; M.L. Holman, Ancestry of Charles Stinson Pillsbury and John Sargent Pillsbury, 2 vols. (1938), pp. 517-39 (Whittier, Rolfe, Peasley, Barnard), 589-630 (Greenleaf, Coffin, Kember, Stevens, Piper), 935-40, 711-12 (Coffin), 719-28 (Atkinson, Myrick); J.E. Greenleaf, Genealogy of the Greenleaf Family (1896), pp. 190-93, 198-200, 2034,451-52, and the Register 122(1968):28- 36 (Moore, reprinted in English Origins of New England Families, second series 1198512:114-22); R.F. Hussey, L.H. Griffin, and G.G. Hubbell, A Branch of the Hussey Family in America (1964), pp. 6-7; GDMNH (see under 3 above), sections on the Hussey, Robinson, Roberts, Nutter, Evans, Home and Hanson families; PS2 (see under 4 above), pp. 3- 4 (Robinson), 135 (Kitchen); Charlotte A. (Edgerly) Nicely, Hanson Relatives (19Th, pp. 32-39,5-6, 71-72, 60-65 (Hanson, Boyce, Trask, Nutter, Roberts); John Clough Genealogical Society, The Genealogy of the Descendants of John Clough of Salisbury, Massachusetts (1952), pp. 2542.

    6. General: J.O. Austin, American Authors’ Ancestry (1915) charts (pp. 13,48, 60, 61, and 98) the parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, and patrilineal ancestors of great-grandparents, for all five poets -- with, however, some errors (including a misidentification of Longfellow’s maternal grandmother) and omissions. For Mrs. Holmes’s Cabot, Mrs. Longfellow’s Appleton and Lowell's noted agnate kin see L.V. Briggs, History and Genealogy of the Cabot Family, 1475-1927, 2 vols. (1927), W.S. Appleton, A Genealogy of the Appleton Family (1874), the above-cited 1899 Lowell genealogy, and NEXUS 2(l985):125-27, 159-60. For the royal descents of Governor Thomas Dudley, Mrs. Elizabeth Coytmore Tyng, George Curwen and Samuel Appleton, see F. L. Weis and W. L. Sheppard, Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists, 6th ed. (1988), lines 50, 199, 37 and 249. For the various presidential connedions of these poets, plus the royal descent of Mrs. Judith Everard Appleton, see G.B. Roberts, Ancestors of American Presidents, preliminary edition revised (1989), passim and pp. 152-53.

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