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  • Notable Kin: The Flowering of New England, Part One: Emerson, Hawthorne, Melville, Thoreau, and Harriet Beecher Stowe

    Gary Boyd Roberts

    Published Date : June - August 1989

    The last ten “Notable Kin” columns have treated New England ancestors of some U.S. presidents, foreign prime ministers, Hollywood and folklore figures, Texans, and tycoons.  Having thus suggested something of the extent and expansion of the “New England family,” I now wish to return, as with the earlier Declaration and Constitution “signer” colunms, to this region itself, and consider the ancestry of fifteen figures associated with the mid-nineteenth century “flowering of New England,” of Boston and its Brahman intelligentsia and upper class, and of Harvard.  In this column we shall treat many, sometimes most, of the American ancestors of the philosopher and transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson, the novelists Nathaniel Hawthorne, Jr., and Herman Melville, the civil libertarian and essaysist Henry David Thoreau, and Mrs. Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe, whose Uncle Tom’s Cabin, one of the most popular novels of all time, may also be considered the greatest abolitionist tract of its day and almost a contributing cause of the American Civil War.  Later columns will similarly cover the poets William Cullen Bryant. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and John Greenleaf Whittier, and the historians Henry and Brooks Adams, George Bancroft, John Lothrop Motley, Francis Parkman, Jr., and William Hickling Prescott.

    "The Flowering of New England, 1815-1865” was given its classic definition by Van Wyck Brooks in his 1936 book of that title, and Brahmin Boston its classic, if slightly tongue-in-cheek description, by Cleveland Amory in his 1947 The Proper Bostonian.  Recent comparative studies have included E. Digby Baltzell's Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia: Two Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Class Authority and Leadership (1979) and Frederick Cople Jaher, The Urban Establishment: Upper Strata in Boston, New York, Charleston, Chicago, and Los Angeles (1982).  In general the post-revolutionary Federalist mercantile elite of Salem, then Boston, headed in Salem by such families as Crowninshields, Derbys, Endicotts and Peabodys, and in Boston by Cabots, Lowells, Higginsons, Perkinses, and others, began, in the two decades following the War of 1812, to produce an intellectual second generation.

    Dominant in the China trade, with colleagues in Nantucket and New Bedford almost equally rich from whaling, this elder mercantile elite figured prominently after 1830 in the development of textile factories, railroads, and the 1850s clipper ship, swan song of the “Age of Sail.”  And business leaders are often succeeded, with attendant generation gaps or interfamily tension, by literary, artistic, social, or philanthropic children.  But between roughly 1830 and the Civil War New England produced probably the most brilliant intellectual ferment in American history, activity that completely overshadowed the considerable achievement of a mercantile parent generation, marked the secular maturity of Harvard College, and made Boston the “Athens of America.”  Among the major achievements of this “flowering” younger generation were a liberalized religion (Unitarianism), a native philosophy (transcendentalism), much of the abolitionist and feminist movements in social reform (plus Thoreau’s civil disobedience), a fully realized nation literature (and in The Scarlet Letter and Moby Dick, two of the greatest classics among all nineteenth century novels), plus the beginning of American public education, of American literary and art criticism, and of an American historical school.  And although less read today the poems of Bryant, Holmes, Longfellow, Lowell, and Whittier, among the most popular in literary history, still appear in many anthologies, and Hiawatha, Myles Standish’s courtship and the Wayside Inn have entered American folklore.

    My selection of Emerson, Hawthorne, Melville, Thoreau and Harriet Beecher Stowe as the five seminal figures of this generation will not, I hope, be controversial, especially if I later cover the above-listed poets and historians and save William Ellery Channng and Horace Mann for possible future columns on religious or educational founders.  Born between 1803 and 1819, the five subjects of this column were natives respectively of Boston (Emerson), Salem (Hawthorne), New York City (Melville, whose father, however, was born in Boston), Concord (Thoreau) and Litchfield, Connecticut (Stowe).  Emerson and Thoreau were Harvard graduates of 1821 and 1837, Hawthorne a Bowdoin graduate of 1825, and Stowe, who attended the Hartford Female Seminary founded by her sister Catharine, was the daughter, wife, or sister of graduates of Yale, Bowdoin, Amherst, and Illinois College.  And although several of the poets and historians to be treated later certainly belonged to leading “Brahmin” families or were the sons or near kinsmen of noted merchants, Emerson and Stowe were children of well-known Boston ministers -- William Emerson, Unitarian, of First Church, and Lyman Beecher, Presbyterian, of Hanover Street Church, late first president of the Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati.  Stowe, sister of educator Catharine Esther, Congregational ministers Charles, Edward, and [109] Thomas Kinnicut Beecher, and of Presbyterian and Congregational minister Henry Ward Beecher, the famed Brooklyn orator, belonged to probably the leading clerical family in nineteenth century America.  Melville and Thoreau were both grandsons paternally of Boston merchants (Thomas Melville figures in ‘The Last Leaf" by O. W. Holmes as one of the “Indians” in the Boston Tea Party), but Melville’s father declared bankruptcy and his maternal grandfather was revolutionary general Peter Gansevoort of Albany.  Thoreau’s father was a Concord storekeeper and his maternal grandfather, a Harvard graduate of 1767, was a Congregational minister in Salem, Massachusetts, and Keene, New Hampshire.  Hawthorne’s father was a Salem sea captain.

    These five intellectual giants were, on average, two generations younger than the New England signers of the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution, and a generation older than the New England-derived tycoons of the post-Civil War era, both groups the subjects of earlier series of “Notable Kin” columns.  New Englanders born between 1800 and 1825, usually sixth or seventh in descent from Great Migration immigrants of the 1630s, were probably not yet related to almost all of their contemporaries with similar ancestry -- that extent of kinship was only reached, I should guess, in the late nineteenth or early twentieth centuries.  But the 1800-25 generation certainly had thousands of New England-derived kinsmen, was usually descended from 17th and 18th century forebears from several areas (at least, with some exceptions, several towns) and perhaps several social groups, frequently had a few post-Great Migration Scots-Irish, Scots, French Huguenot, German, New York Dutch, or other non-Yankee ancestors, and almost inevitably was descended from an immigrant forebear of royal descent, a Mayflower passenger, an ancestor of two or more of our forty presidents to date or of The Princess of Wales and her sons, or a family somehow associated with the Salem witchcraft persecution of 1692.  These last groups number roughly 125 (Great Migration immigrants of royal descent), 23 or 25 (Mayflower families who left progeny -- the 24th and 25th are Mullins and Tilley behind Alden and Howland respectively), 100 plus (New England families ancestral to two or more presidents, listed in Ancestors of American Presidents), 20 or 25 (New England ancestors, or very near kinsmen of ancestors, of The Princess of Wales), and 25 plus (families of the victims, major accusers, and officials of the 1692 Salem witchcraft trials).

    Emerson’s ancestors include the royally descended Thomas Bradbury of Salisbury, Rev. Peter Bulkeley of Concord (and Jane Allen, his first wife, who died in England), and Rev. William Sargent of Malden, Mayflower passengers John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley (plus her parents), and John and Elizabeth (Thompson) Cogswell of Ipswich among forebears of The Princess of Wales.  Through his Emerson, Cogswell, Sewall, Stebbing, Perkins, Bulkeley and Howland forebears, moreover, Emerson’s presidential kinsmen (usually 4th-7th cousins various times removed) include the Adamses, Fillmore, Hayes, Cleveland, Taft, Coolidge, F. D. Roosevelt, Nixon, Ford, and Bush.  Somewhat surprisingly, perhaps, Emerson has considerable Connecticut and Springfield-area ancestry through Phebe Bliss, his paternal grandmother, and shares Waite and Cogswell forebears with Hawthorn and Bliss and Stebbing ancestors with Harriet Beecher Stowe.

    Hawthorne, a descendant of the Gardner, Bowditch, and Porter families of Salem and a great-great-grandson of the infamous Judge John Hathorne of the Salem witchcraft trials (he conducted the preliminary examinations), also had an immigrant ancestor of royal descent -- Mrs. Jane Lawrence Giddings of Ipswich, whose parents were ancestors also of Taft and probably F. D. Roosevelt.  Other forebears were John and Elizabeth (Thompson) Cogswell, mentioned above, ancestors also of the two Adams presidents, Calvin Coolidge, Emerson, and The Princess of Wales and her son.  Through the Cogswells, and via common descent from Samuel Waite and Mary Ward of Wethersfield, Essex, England, Emerson and Hawthorne were both fifth and sixth cousins.

    Melville’s mother was of New York Dutch descent, and his paternal grandfather was the child of Scots immigrants, but through his paternal grandmother, Priscilla Scollay of Boston, the author of Moby Dick was descended from Percival Lowell, ancestor of the Boston Lowells; from noted colonial magistrate Daniel Gookin, sometime of Virginia, also a forebear of many Boston “Brahmnins;” and from Nantucket “urfather” Tristram Coffin, an ancestor of President Ford and brother of an ancestor of Calvin Coolidge.  Among Melville’s New York Dutch forebears, moreover, were Kiliaen and Jerenuas Van Rensselaer, the first and fourth patroons of Rensselaerwyck, the New York City merchant and burgomaster Oloff Stevenszen Van Cortlandt (Van Rensselaers and Van Cortlandts are among the leading families of colonial New York), and Pieter Quackenbush of Albany and Gerrit Van der Pod of Gorcum, Holland, ancestors respectively of Martin Van Buren (Melville’s fourth cousin once removed) and Theodore Roosevelt.

    Thoreau’s paternal grandfather was a Channel Islander from Jersey, and his paternal grandmother was half Scots, but through his mother the author of Walden was descended from Mayflower passenger Richard Warren, an ancestor also of presidents Grant (Thoreau’s sixth cousin) and F. D. Roosevelt.  Another forebear was Experience Mitchell of Bridgewater, an ancestor of Taft and possibly Bush, and the brother of an ancestor of The Princess of Wales.  Although himself associated with Concord, Thoreau’s colonial New England forebears lived largely in Boston, Hingham, Bridgewater, Plymouth, Watertown, Weston, and Newbury.

    The ancestors of Harriet Beecher Stowe include the royally descended Mrs. Agnes Harris Spencer Edwards of Hartford, and Holton, Ford, Woodward, and Woodford (all of Northampton) forebears of The Princess of Wales.  Through her Ford, Charde, Foote, Smith of South Hadley, Chapin, Day and Sherman [110] ancestors Mrs. Stowe’s presidential kinsmen include Hayes, Cleveland, Taft, Hoover, F.D. Roosevelt, Nixon, and Bush.  Through common Bliss and Stebbins ancestors of Hartford or Springfield, or their English parents, Mrs. Stowe and Emerson were both fifth and sixth cousins once removed.

    Thus three of these five figures -- Emerson, Hawthorne, and Mrs. Stowe -- had royal descents; two --Emerson and Thoreau -- were descendants of Mayflower passengers; four -- Emerson, Hawthorne, Thoreau, and Mrs. Stowe -- shared ancestors with The Princess of Wales and her sons (and Hawthorne’s shared descent is reported here for the first time in print); and all five had ancestors in common with American presidents - Emerson with 11, Hawthorne with 5, Melville with 4, Thoreau with 3 (possibly 4), and Mrs. Stowe with 7, and except for Melville I examined only kinships through forebears of two or more presidents.  Emerson, moreover, was related twice over to both Hawthorne and Mrs. Stowe; Melville, through the Coffins, was related to many of the Nantucket whalers whose lives partly inspired his writing; and Thoreau belonged to probably the largest Mayflower progeny, that of Richard Warren.  Kinships to non-presidential American notables are too numerous to cover; some appear in "The Mowbray Connection” or American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales.  Among children, descendants, siblings, and very near kinsmen of these five -- in addition to Emerson’s father, Melville’s maternal grandfather and the various Beechers named above  -- an aunt and a son of Emerson, a son and a daughter (Mrs. Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, “Mother Alphonsa”) of Hawthorne, and Mrs. Stowe’s husband (and fifth cousin once removed), Calvin Ellis Stowe, are all treated in the Dictionary of American Biography.  Emerson’s daughter Edith married William Hathaway Forbes, scion of a noted “Brahmin” China Trade family and founder and first president of American Bell Telephone Company; their son William Cameron Forbes was Governor-General of the Philippines.  Hawthorne married Sophia Amelia Peabody, sister of kindergarten founder Elizabeth Palmer Peabody and of Mary Tyler Peabody, wife of Horace Mann.  Melville married Elizabeth Shaw, daughter of Lemuel Shaw, Chief Justice of Massachusetts, and Emily Baldwin Perkins, a niece of Mrs. Stowe, married Edward Everett Hale, the Unitarian clergyman who wrote “The Man Without a Country.”

    Outlined below, in the customary format for this column, is the known ancestry of these five figures for six generations (parents, grandparents, great-, great-great-, and great-great-great-grand parents, following the figure and his or her birth and death years, with semi-colons separating generations and commas separating couples of the same generation from the figure), with extensions to earlier generations to include all ancestors mentioned above. Melville’s Scots ancestry and Thoreau’s Jersey and Scots ancestry are extended only to the immigrants, and Melville’s Dutch ancestry, except for lines extending to Van Rensselaers, Van Cortlandts, or presidential forebears, is extended for only three generations.  As before RD indicates an ancestor of royal descent, MP a Mayflower passenger, and PW a forebear shared with The Princess of Wales.  TP indicates an ancestor of two or three presidents, as charted in Ancestors of American Presidents, and FP an ancestor of four or five presidents. PA, used only under Melville, indicates a presidential ancestor, i.e. shared with only one president.

    1. RALPH WALDO EMERSON, 1803-1882; Willam Emerson, Jr., & Ruth Haskins; William Emerson & Phebe Bliss, John Haskins & Hannah Upham; Joseph Emerson & Mary Moody, Daniel Bliss & Phebe Walker, Robert Haskins & Sarah Cook, Phineas Upham (IV) and Hannah Waite; Edward Emerson & Rebecca Waldo, Samuel Moody & Hannah Sewall, Thomas Bliss & Hannah Cadwell, Robert Walker & Ruth Wilcoxson, Philip Cook, Jr., & Sarah Read, Phineas Upham (III) & Tamzen Hill, Joseph Waite, Jr. & Lydia Sargent; Joseph Emerson & Elizabeth Bulkeley, Cornelius Waldo & Hannah Cogswell, Caleb Moody & Judith Bradbury, John Sewall & Hannah Fessenden, Samuel Bliss & Mary Leonard, Thomas Cadwell & Elizabeth Stebbing, Joseph Walker & Abigail Prudden, Timothy Wilcoxson & Joanna Birdsey, Philip Cook & Mary Lamson, Phineas Upham, Jr., & Mary Mellins, Isaac Hill & Sarah Wheat, Joseph Waite & Hannah Oakes, John Sargent & Lydia Chipman; Thomas Emerson (TP) & Elizabeth Brewster (TP), Edward Bulkeley & Lucian ___, John Cogswell (PW, TP) & Elizabeth Thompson (PW, TP), Thomas Bradbury (RD) and Mary Perkins, Henry Sewall, Jr., (TP) & Jane Dummer (TP), Thomas Bliss & Margaret Hulins, Edward Stebbing (brother of Mrs. Editha Stebbing Day, TP) & Frances Tough, John Waite & Mary Hills, William Sargent (RD) & Sarah ___, John Chipman & Hope Howland; Rev. Peter Bulkeley (RD) & Jane Allen (RD), John Perkins (TP) & Judith Gater (TP), Samuel Waite & Mary Ward, John Howland (MP, TP) & Elizabeth Tilley (MP, TP); Rev. Edward Bulkeley (RD, TP) & Olive Irby (TP), Henry Howland (FP) & Mar garet ___ (FP), John Tilley (MP, TP) & Joan Hurst (MP, TP).

    2. NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, JR., 1804-1864; Nathaniel Hathorne & Elizabeth Clarke Manning; Daniel Hathorne & Rachel Phelps, Richard Manning & Miriam Lord; Joseph Hathorne & Sarah Bowditch, Jonathan Phelps & Judith Cox, John Manning & Ruth Potter, Thomas Lord & Elizabeth Clarke; John Hathorne & Ruth Gardner, William Bowditch, Jr., & Mary Gardner, Henry Phelps & Rachel Upton, Thomas Cox, Jr., & Judith Eliott, Thomas Manning & Mary Giddings, Anthony Potter, Jr., & Martha Dresser, John Lord & Elizabeth Clarke; William Hathorne & Anne ___, George Gardner & ___ ___, William Bowditch & Sarah Bear, Thomas Gardner (III) (nephew of George) & Mary Porter, John Phelps & Abigail (Antrum?), Thomas Cox & Hannah (Woodbury?), William Eliott & Mary Browne, Richard Manning & Anstice Calley, Thomas Giddings & Mary Goodhue, Anthony Potter & Elizabeth Whipple, John [111] Dresser, Jr., & Martha Thorley, Robert Lord, Jr., & Hannah Day, Thomas Clarke, Jr., tailor, & Abigail Cogswell; George Giddings & Jane Lawrence (RD), Robert Lord & Mary Waite, John Cogswell (PW, TP) & Elizabeth Thompson (PW, TP); Thomas Lawrence (RD. TP) & Joan Antrobus (TP), Samuel Waite & Mary Ward.

    3.      HERMAN MELVILLE, 1819-1891; Allan Melville & Maria Gansevoort; Thomas Melville & Priscilla Scollay, Peter Gansevoort & Catherina Van Schaick; Allan Melville & Jean Cargill, John Scollay & Mercy Greenleaf, Harmen Gansevoort & Magdalena Douw, Wessel Van Schaick & Maria Gerritsen; James Scollay & Deborah Bligh, Daniel Greenleaf & Elizabeth Gookin, Petrus Douw & Anna Van Rensselaer, Anthony Van Schaick & Anna Catharina Ten Broeck; Malcolm Scollay & Barbara Elphinstone, (said to be) John Bligh & Rebecca Gott (Gault), Stephen Greenleaf, Jr., & Elizabeth Gerrish, Samuel Gookin & Mary ___, Jonas Douw & Magdalena Quackenbush, Hendrick Van Rensselaer & Catharine Annetje Van Brugh, Sybrant Van Schaick & Elizabeth Van der Poel; Stephen Greenleaf & Elizabeth Coffin, William Gerrish & Joanna Lowell, Daniel Gookin & Mary Dolling, Pieter Quackenbush (PA) & Marritje ___ (PA), Jeremias Van Rensselaer, 4th patroon of Rensselaerwyck, & Maria Van Cortlandt, Teunis Cornelis Van der Poel & Catrina Croon; Tristram Coffin & Dionis Stevens, Percival Lowell & Rebecca ___, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, 1st patroon of Rensselaerwyck, & Anna Van Wely, 0loff Stevenson Van Cortlandt & Anneken Loockermans, Gerrit Van der Poel (PA) & Cornelia Wynant (PA); Peter Coffin (TP) & Joanna ___ (TP).

    4. HENRY DAVID THOREAU, 1817-1862; John Thoreau, Jr., & Cynthia Dunbar; John Thoreau & Jane Burns (Bourn), Asa Dunbar & Mary Jones; Peter Bourn (Burns) & Sarah Orrock, Samuel Dunbar & Mary Hayward, Elisha Jones & Mary Allen; David Orrock & Sarah Tillet, Peter Dunbar & Sarah Thaxter, Thomas Hayward & Bethia Brett, Josiah Jones, Jr., & Abigail Barnes, Nathaniel Allen & Lydia ___; Edward Tillet & Hannah ___, Robert Dunbar & Rose ___, Samuel Thaxter & Abigail Church, John Hayward & Sarah Mitchell, William Brett, Jr., & Elizabeth Cary, Josiah Jones & Lydia Treadway, Thomas Barnes & Abigail Goodenow, Joseph Allen & Anne Brazier; Richard Church & Elizabeth Warren, Experience Mitchell (TP) &   Mary ___, (TP); Richard Warren (MP, TP) & Elizabeth ___ (TP), Thomas Mitchell (PW, TP) & Margaret Williams (PW, TP).

    5.    (MRS.) HARRIET (ELIZABETH) BEECHER STOWE, 1811-1896; Lyman Beecher & Roxana Foote; David Beecher & Esther Lyman, Eli Foote & Roxana Ward; Nathaniel Beecher & Sarah Sperry, John Lyman & Hope Hawley, Daniel Foote & Margaret Parsons, Andrew Ward (V) & Diana Hubbard; Joseph Beecher & Lydia Roberts, Ebenezer Sperry & Abigail Dickerman, Ebenezer Lyman & Experience Pomeroy, Jehial Hawley & Hope Stowe, Nathaniel Foote (IV) & Ann Clarke, Ebenezer Parsons, Jr., & Martha Ely, Andrew Ward (IV) & Elizabeth Fowler, Daniel Hubbard (Ill) & Diana Ward; Isaac Beecher & Mary ___, William Roberts & Joanna ___, Richard Sparry & Dennis ___, Abraham Dickerman & Mary Cooper, Thoma Lyman & Ruth Holton, John Pomeroy & Mindwell Sheldon, Samuel Hawley & Mary Thompson, Ichabod Stowe & Mary Atwater, Nathaniel Foote (III) & Margaret Bliss, Ebenezer Parsons & Margaret Marshfield, Joseph Ely & Mary Riley, Andrew Ward (III) & Deborah Joy (parents of Andrew IV & Diana), Abraham Fowler & Elizabeth Bartlett, Daniel Hubbard, Jr., & Elizabeth Cruttenden; Richard Lyman & Hepzibah Ford, William Holton (PW) & Mary ___ (PW) Medad Pomeroy & Experience Woodward, Isaac Sheldon & Mary Woodford, Nathaniel Foote, Jr., & Elizabeth Smith, Nathaniel Bliss (her first husband) & Catherine Chapin, Samuel Marshfield (her third husband) & Catherine Chapin, Samuel Ely & Mary Day, Andrew Ward, Jr., & Tryal Meigs, Jacob Joy & Elizabeth Spencer; Thomas Ford (PW, TP) & Elizabeth Chard (PW, TP), Henry Woodward (PW) & Elizabeth ___ (PW), Thomas Woodford (PW) & Many Blott (PW), Nathaniel Foote (TP) & Elizabeth (Deming?) (TP), Samuel Smith (TP) & Elizabeth Smith (TP), Thomas Bliss & Margaret Hulins, Samuel Chapin (TP) & Cecily Penny (TP), Robert Day (TP) & Editha Stebbing (TP), Andrew Ward & Hester Sherman, William Spencer & Agnes Harris (RD); Robert Foote (FP) & Joan Brooke (FP), Edmund Sherman & Joan ___; Edmund Sherman & Anne Pelatte; Henry Sherman (TI’) & Agnes (Butter?) (TP).

    Sources (in addition to various biographies):

    I. Emerson: B.K. Emerson, The Ipswich Emersons (1900), pp. 25-42, 50-53, 74-78, 126-29, 176-79, 265-67; D.L. Jacobus, The Bulkeley Genealogy (1933), pp. 92-113, 128, 145-46, 193-95, 371-72; Waldo Lincoln, Genealogy of the Waldo Family, vol. 1 (1902), pp. 12-21, 41-44; E.O. Jameson, The Cogswells in America (1884), pp. 1-7, 15-17; D.W. Hoyt, The Old Families of Salisbury & Amesbury, Massachusetts (1897-1919, reprint 1982), pp. 248-50 (Moody); J. B. Threlfall, The Ancestry of Thomas Bradbury (1611-1695) & His Wife Mary (Perkins) Bradbury (1615-1700) of Salisbury, Massachusetts (1988); M. Halsey Thomas, The Diary of Samuel Sewall, 1674-1729, vol. 2, 1709-1729 (1973), pp. 1071-75, 1078-80; A. T. Bliss, Genealogy of the Bliss Family in America. vol. 1 (1982), pp. 27-32, 4344, 50-51, 68-69; The American Genealogist (henceforth TAG) 30(1954):193-204, 31(1955):193-201 (Cadwell, Stebbins); D.L. Jacobus, History and Genealogy of the Families of Old Fairfield, vol. 1(1930, reprint 1976), pp. 637-38, 640-41, 689, 691 (Walker, Wilcoxson); G.E. Russell, Hoskins Families of Seventeenth Century America (1964), p. 11, #86, L.R. Paige, History of Cambridge,Massachusetts, 1630-1877 (1877, reprint 1986), p. 514, and Mrs. M. I. Gozzaldi, Supplement & Index [to Paige] (1930, reprint 1986), pp. 146-47 (Cook); F.K. Upham, The Descendants of John Upham (1892), pp. 33-75, 78-81, 89-90; T. B. Wyman, The Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown (1879, reprint 1982), pp. 499, 501 (Hill); Nora E. Snow & M. M. Jillson, The Snow-Estes Ancestry, vol. 1(1939), pp. 215-18, and the Register 32(1878):188-91 (Waite); Aaron Sargent, Sargent Genealogy (1895), pp. 24-34, 187, 192, 197 (Sargent, Chipman, Howland); John H. Chipman III, A Chipman Genealogy (1970), pp. 1-8; The Howland Quarterly 28, nos. 2 and 3 (Jan.Apr. 1964), 6-7; TAG 52(1976):198-205 (Tilley).


    2. Hawthorne: W. G. Davis, The Ancestry of Dudley Wi!des (1959), pp. 147-59 (Hathorne); Sidney Perley, The History of Salem, Massachusetts, vol. 1, 1626-1637(1924), pp. 284-86 (Hathorne), 68-69 (Gardner), vol. 2, 1638-70 (1926), p. 136 (Bowditch); F.A. Gardner, Gardner Memorial (1933), pp. 9-49; the Register 72(1918):223-240 (reprinted in English Origins of New England Families, first series [1984], 1:52845) (Bowditch); O. S. Phelps and A.T. Servin, The Phelps Family of America. vol. 2 (1899), pp. 1571-72, 1577-78, 1581-82, 1593, 1605, 1658-59; Rev. John H. Cox, Cox Genealogy (1898-1905), pp. 1-7; M. W. Ferris, Dawes-Gates Ancestral Lines, vol. 2 (1931), pp. 331-34 (Eliott), and W.G. Eliot, A Sketch of the Eliot Family (1887): 12-22; W.H. Manning, The Manning Families of New England (1902), pp. 659-63, 683-88, 700-704, 714-16, 728-29; the Register 135(1981):274-86 (reprinted in English Origins of New England Families, second series [1985], 2:1-13) (Giddings), and M.S. Giddings, The Giddings Family (1882), pp. 12-21; CE. Potter, Genealogies of the Potter Families and Their Descendants in America (1888), part 1, pp. 1, 18; Nora E. Snow and M.M. Jillson, op.cit., pp. 128-32 (Dresser, Thorley); R.M. Tingley, Some Ancestral Lines (1935), p. 205 (Lord), Abraham Hammatt, The Hammnatt Papers (1880-99, reprint 1980), pp. 208-10 (Lord), and Waite sources listed under Emerson; Boston Transcript genealogical column of 13 Oct. 1932, #5400, the Register 69(1915):89, and Ipswich vital records (Thomas Clarkes); E.O. Jameson, op.cit., pp. 1-7, 18, and MW. Ferris, Dawes-Gates Ancestral Lines, vol. 1 (1943), pp. 188-89 (Cogswell).  See also J.A. Emmerton and Henry F. Waters, Gleanings from English Records about New England Families (1880), pp. 53-55, 73-77, and Hathorne and Manning charts opposite pp. 52 and 72.

    3. Melville: Donald Whyte, A Dictionary of Scottish Emigrants to the U.S.A. (1972), p. 216, and Edward W. McGienen, Boston Marriages from 1700 to 1809, 1700-1751 (1977, reprint of the 1898 28th Report of the Record Commissioners of the City of Boston), p. 341 (Allen Melville & Jean Cargill); E.H. Whitwell and Gertrude Parker, Genealogy of the Whitwells and Scollays (1889), pp. 28-30, 34-35, 41, 46; H.P. Greenough, Some Descendants of Captain William Greenough (1969), pp. 21 & 23 (including charts of the full known ancestry of John Scollay & Mercy Greenleaf); J.E. Greenleaf, Genealogy of the Greenleaf Family (1896), pp. 190-93, 198-201, 205-207, M.L. Holman, Ancestry of Charles Stinson Pillsbury & John Sargent Pillsbury, 2 vols. (1938), pp. 589-93, 599-615 (Greenleaf, Coffin), W.G. Davis, The Ancestry of Phoebe Tilton (1947), pp. 207-19 (Gerrish, Lowell), and E.E. Salisbury, Family Memorials (1885), pp. 375-450 and Gookin pedigree; Alice P. Kenney, The Gansevoorts of Albany (1969), chart preceding the introduction esp.; Jonathan Pearson, Contributions for the Genealogies of the First Settlers of the Ancient County of Albany (1872, reprint 1978), pp. 51-52 (Gansevoort), 43-44 (Douw), 131-32 (Van Schaick); G.R. Quackenbush, The Quackenbush Family in America (1987), pp. 3-6; NYGBR 80(1949):194-97 (Van Cortlandt to Melville) and Florence Van Rensselaer, The Van Rensselaers in Holland and in America (1956), pp. 2-9, 12-23, 18-19; GB. Vanderpoel, Genealogy of the Vanderpoel Family (1912), pp. 52-56.

    4. Thoreau: Marion C. Turk, The Quiet Adventurers in North America (1983), p. 623 (Thoreau), Henry Williams, Memorials of the Class of 1837 of Harvard University (1887), pp. 37-43 (H.D. Thoreau) and various Boston-area primary sources, including 1757, 1746, and 1769 wills of Edward Tillet, Mrs. Sarah Tillet Orrock, and Peter Bourn respectively, and 1723 and 1754 Orrock-Tillet and Bourn-Orrock marriages; Sibleys Harvard Graduates, vol. 16, 1764-1767(1972), pp. 457-63 (Rev. Asa Dunbar, whose mother is incorrectly identified therein as Melatiah Hayward), Bridgewater vital records (1745 birth of Asa Dunbar), and Dunbar research of Mrs. Ann Theopold Chaplin; George Lincoln, History of the Town of Hingham, Volumes II, III, the Genealogies (1893, reprint 1983), pp. 195-97 (which mistakenly accounts for the later career of Samuel Dunbar, b. 1704), 229-31 (Dunbar, Thaxter); The Mayflower Descendant 23(1921):145-47 (Thaxter); R.S Wakefield, J.A. Beebe and others, Richard Warren of the Mayflower and his Descendants for Four Generations (1987, a Mayflower Families in Progress pamphlet), pp. 1,3-4, 20,81 82; Nahum Mitchell, History of the Early Settlement of Bridgewater (1840, reprint 1983), pp. 176-78, 24142 (Hayward, Mitchell), and TAG 59 (1983):28-31 (Mitchell); L.B. Goodenow, The Brett Genealogy (1915), pp. 3148, 56-57, 74-76; Henry Bond, Genealogies of the Families and Descendants of the Early Settlers of Watertown, 2nd ed. (1860), pp. 31 12, 315-17,814-15 (Jones); W.P. Bacon, Ancestry of Daniel James Seely and of Charlotte Louisa Vail (1914?), pp. 124-26, 166, 68, 107, 56-57 (the entire known ancestry of Mrs. Mary Jones Dunbar); A.H. Bent, Walter Allen of Newbury, Mass., 1640,and Some of His Descendants (1896), pp.3,S,7-8.

    5. Stowe: Josephine C. Frost, Ancestors of Henry Ward Beecher and His Wife Eunice White Bullard (1927), covering Mrs. Stowe’s entire known American ancestry; ignore, however, the long and erroneous Fowler, Lyman and Pomeroy English pedigrees.  The known forebears of David Beecher, Mrs. Stowe’s paternal grandfather, are treated in D.L. Jacobus, Families of Ancient New Haven, 3 vols. (1922-32, reprint 1974), and those of Esther Lyman, David’s wife, in M.L. Holman, Ancestry of Colonel John Harrington Stevens and His Wife Frances Helen Miller (1948), pp. 383-478 (but ignore pp. 419-32 and for the correct parentage of Thomas Thompson, husband of Ann Welles, see Ernest Flagg, Genealogical Notes on the Founding of New England [1926, reprint 19731, pp. 348-50).  Of the ancestors of Roxana Foote treated above, moreover, the Bliss, Ely, and Day families are also covered in D.L. Jacobus and E.F. Watertown, Hale-House and Related Families (1952, reprint 1978).

    6. General: For the royal descents of Thomas Bradbury, Rev. Peter and Jane (Allen) Bulkeley, Rev. William Sargent, Mrs. Jane Lawrence Giddings, and Mrs. Agnes Harris Spencer Edwards, see F. L. Weis and W.L. Sheppard, Jr., Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists, 6th ed. (1988), lines 246A (Bradbury), 31 (Bulkeley), 43 (Sargent) and 246E (Edwards), the Register 141(1987):95-97, 100, 103 (Bulkeleys, Edwards, Giddings, Bradbury), the Thomas Bradbury volume by J.B. Threlfall cited above, the 19-volume mss. collection of GA. Moriarty at NEHGS (for Sargent), DL. Greene’s forthcoming Lawrence monograph in The Genealogist (New York) (for Mrs. Giddings), TAG 63(1988):33-45 (for Mrs. Edwards), and sources cited in all.  For connections to The Princess of Wales and her sons, see G.B. Roberts and W.A. Reitwiesner, American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales (1984), and for the descents of various presidents from immigrants listed above, see G.B. Roberts, Ancestors of American Presidents, preliminary edition (1989).

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