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  • The Fiennes Collection in the Old and New Worlds with Kudos to Hollywood: Part 2

    Danny D. Smith and Celia Fiennes

    Published Date : March 29, 2001

    Namesake of the present Baron Saye and Sele and the actor (Ralph Fiennes's middle name), Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes (1608-1669), second son of William, first Viscount Saye and Sele, appears as figure 40 in John Singleton Copley's historical painting "Charles I Demanding in the House of Commons the Five Impeached Members"56. Fiennes was an extreme Puritan and antimonarchist, a member for Banbury in the Long Parliament, and commander of a troop of horse in Cromwell's army. After his precipitous surrender of Bristol in 1643, he suffered several reversals of fortune, escaped unnoticed at the time of the Restoration in 1660, and died at Newton Tony, Wiltshire57. He married twice, first to Elizabeth Eliot (1616-1658) by whom he was father of the third viscount, and second to Frances Whitehead (1621-1691) by whom he was the father of five daughters, including Celia Fiennes (1662-1741)58.

    Fiennes family lore pegs Celia as the subject of the nursery rhyme, "Ride a cockhorse to Banbury Cross to see a Fiennes (fine) lady upon a white horse"59. However, Banbury Cross of nursery rhyme fame, destroyed by Puritans who thought it a heathenish relic in 1646, was not replaced until 1858 and therefore did not exist in Celia's lifetime50.

    Between 1685 and 1703 Celia Fiennes undertook thirty-eight excursions in England and Scotland ostensibly for restoration of health, but she later admitted curiosity inspired her. Scholars have mined her narrative for discerning eyewitness accounts of social and domestic history in the late seventeenth century. She traveled by horseback and coach, recording in keen detail inns, towns, roads, churches, religious customs (superstitious to her Puritan mind), local trade, and industry. Her real passion seems, however, to have been for grand architecture and early landscaping work commissioned by great lords. Often staying with her socially prominent relatives who spread out around England, she had entree wherever she wished. G. M. Trevelyan in the foreword to Morris's definitive edition in 1947 of The Journeys of Celia Fiennes praised it "as a fascinating book in which to browse, and I have increasingly thought of it and used it as a valuable source of economic and social history, in the same class as Defoe's Tour of a few years later"51.

    Jane Austen and Endogamy
    Jane Austen and Ralph Fiennes are second cousins seven times removed through the Leigh family, but the pathways through that pedigree become tortuous when Frederick Benjamin Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes (1799-1887), tenth Baron Saye and Sele of the 1603 creation, married secondly in 1857 the Hon. Caroline Leigh, his first cousin through the Twisleton family and his fourth cousin and fourth cousin once removed through the Leigh family as well as his fourth cousin once removed and fifth cousin through the Brydges family. Had there been children of this marriage, they would have been second cousins once removed and double second cousins twice removed through the Leigh family and third cousins once removed and double third cousins twice removed of Jane Austen, and they would have been in remainder to the Brydges family's pretensions to the throne of England. However, the five sons and two daughters born to the first wife of the tenth Baron Saye and Sele are ancestral to the total body of heirs in remainder to the barony of 160352.

    The published letters of the Hon. Mrs. Edward Twisleton clearly point to the Leigh family as the center of Fiennes family emotional and intellectual loyalties53. The three pathways through the Leigh family start in 1739 when Cassandra Leigh (d. 1770) married Sir Edward Turner, second Baronet. Their daughter Elizabeth Turner married Thomas Twisleton, seventh Baron Saye and Sele of the 1603 creation. Their son the Venerable Thomas James Twisleton, Archdeacon of Columbo, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), married Anne Ashe and became the father of Frederick Benjamin Twisleton, the tenth Baron Saye and Sele. A sister of the Venerable Thomas James Twisleton was Julia Twisleton (d. 1843) who married in 1786 James Henry Leigh (1765-1823). Their son Chandos Leigh (1791-1850) was created Baron Leigh of Stoneleigh in 1839. His daughter Caroline in 1857 established the third link to the family of Lord Saye and Sele when she married the tenth Baron who was five times related as noted above54. Chandos, first Baron Leigh, became surrogate father to the children of Archdeacon Twisleton as they were sent from Ceylon to be schooled in England. In turn, the younger children of Chandos, first Baron Leigh, became legal wards of a younger brother of Lord Saye and Sele, until they reached adulthood55.

    Jane Austen (1775-1817) was daughter of the Reverend George Austen (1731-1805) by his wife Cassandra Leigh (1739-1827), daughter of the Rev. Thomas Leigh (d. 1764), son of Theophilus Leigh (d. 1725) who married Mary Brydges, sister of the first Duke of Chandos (d. 1744). The connecting link to the Fiennes family is through Cassandra Leigh (d. 1779) who had married in 1739 Sir Edward Turner, second Baronet. Her father William Leigh (1691-1757) was a brother of the Rev. Thomas Leigh, grandfather of Jane Austen56.

    Jane Austen and the Fiennes family barely missed being in remainder to the royal pretensions of the Brydges family as heirs of line of Princess Mary Tudor, elder sister of Henry VIII. The representation had come to the Brydges family through Lady Mary Bruce, wife of the first Duke of Chandos. Caroline Leigh, second wife of the tenth Baron Saye and Sele, however, was in remainder. Her great-grandfather James Leigh (1724-1774) married in 1755 Lady Caroline Brydges, eldest daughter of Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos, and eighth in descent from Princess Mary. Had Parliament not overridden the will of Henry VIII, this line descended from Lady Katherine Grey, younger sister of Lady Jane Grey, through the Seymour, Bruce, and Brydges families, would have ascended the throne. The father of the second Duke, James Brydges, created in 1719 Duke of Chandos, lived in princely splendor at his estate, Canons, outside of London, where he was patron of Handel and namesake of the "Chandos Anthems." The representation passed to the only brother of Lady Caroline Brydges, James, third and last Duke of Chandos whose only child Anne Eliza married Richard Grenville, first Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. The present heir of line, Lady Kinloss in the peerage of Scotland, is sixth in descent from Anne Eliza Brydges57.

    Edward Twisleton and his American Bride
    Into the Boston social season of 1849-50 came the idyllic English nobleman, "tall, of a good figure, clean shaven, with fresh complexion, a fine forehead, an expressive curving mouth and a very deep dimple in his chin, light blue eyes, brilliant and sparking, full of intelligence and kindliness"58. He was the younger brother of the tenth Lord Saye and Sele of the 1603 creation and had two years prior to his arrival in Boston been granted by Royal Warrant the precedence of a younger son of a baron as though his father had lived to inherit the title. He was therefore by this time the Honourable Edward Turner Boyd Twisleton (1809-1874). He had been born in Colombo, Sri Lanka, then Ceylon, but at the age of seven was sent "home" to England to receive schooling with the children of his cousin Chandos Leigh, first Baron Leigh of Stoneleigh. When Lord Leigh died unexpectedly, his young children became wards of their devoted Cousin Edward.

    A formidable intellectual in his own right, Edward Twisleton attracted intimate friendships with Wordsworth, Manning, Carlyle, Hallam, and many others. He took first-class honors in classics at Trinity College, Oxford and proceeded to M.A. in 1834 when became a fellow of Balliol College. In 1835 he was called to the bar at the Inner Temple and for the next thirty-five years held government commissions inquiring into Scottish poor laws, Irish poor laws, Oxford University, public schools, and the civil service. He served on more commissions than any other man of his time. His published works include Handwriting of Junius Professionally Investigated (1871), The Tongue not Essential to Speech (1873), and a foreword to a work on education in Massachusetts59.

    Armed with letters of introduction, Edward Twisleton first presented himself at the house of George Ticknor (1791-1871) at the apex of Beacon Hill, 1 Park Street. Ticknor was an educator, leader of the library movement, and author of History of Spanish Literature. There Edward Twisleton met Ticknor's wife's niece and ward, Ellen Dwight (1828-1862). Going back to his hotel room that night, he wrote in his journal, "Ellen Dwight, Ellen Delight." The two were married 17 May 1852 in Boston60.

    Boston kin of Ellen Dwight: Parkmans, Eliots, Cabots, Eliots, and Nortons
    The Ticknor house at 1 Park Street was a large, handsome house, overlooking Boston Common-the very center of Boston society61. There the young Ellen Dwight, daughter of deceased Boston merchant, Edmund Dwight, was living with her married sister Mrs. Charles Mills and a sister, Elizabeth Dwight (1830-1901), who married J. Elliot Cabot (1821-1903). The second child of the Cabots, named for his uncle, Edward Twisleton Cabot (1861-1893), clerked for Justice Horace Gray of the U. S. Supreme Court62. Ellen's maternal uncle Samuel Atkins Elliot (1798-1862) married in 1826 Mary Lyman (1802-1875), daughter of Theodore Lyman. They were parents of Charles William Eliot (1823-1926), the reformer president of Harvard. Her maternal aunt, Catherine Eliot, married Andrews Norton. Their son Charles Eliot Norton (1829-1908) was the noted art historian and namesake of the Norton lectures. Another maternal uncle, William Harvard Eliot, was the great-grandfather of Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), the historian63.

    Ellen Dwight Twisleton's elder sister Mary Eliot Dwight, married Samuel Parkman, M.D. (1815-1855), younger brother of George Parkman, M.D., murdered by Professor Webster in 1849. Their father Samuel Parkman was a brother of Francis Parkman (1788-1852), father of Francis Parkman (1823-1893), the historian64. The mother of the Drs. Parkman, Mary Bromfield Mason, a pivotal figure in the genealogies of Boston families, was daughter of U. S. Senator Jonathan Mason (1765-1831) by his wife Susanna Powell, daughter of William and Mary (Bromfield) Powell. William Powell was through his daughters ancestor of many prominent Bostonians, including the Mason, Warren, Sears, Perkins, and Hamlen families, besides the Parkmans65.

    The only daughter of Dr. Samuel and Mary Eliot (Dwight) Parkman was Ellen Twisleton Parkman (1853-1934) who married William Warren Vaughan of Hallowell, Maine. She edited for publication the letters from England of her namesake aunt, Ellen (Dwight) Twisleton from 1852 to her early and much lamented death in 186266.

    Edward Twisleton, Julia Ward Howe, and The End of the Affair
    "The most agreeable John Bull I have seen this many a day, or indeed ever," Julia Ward Howe wrote to her sister Anne on 15 December 1849 in reference to Edward Twisleton, shortly he had visited the Howes at the Perkins School for the Blind where her husband, Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe was founding director67. The most recent biographer of Julia Ward Howe makes a case that Julia Ward Howe was in love with Twisleton and that veiled references in the poems of her first publication, Passion Flowers, were sublimated references to Twisleton. Although Boston gossip did not link Twisleton's name to the inferred lover in the poetry, the Howe marriage was so stressed that Julia spent the following year in Rome during a trial separation68. Twisleton was certainly a literary mentor to Julia Ward Howe, and his encouragement most likely solidified her decision never to abandon her intellectual studies and further aspirations for publication. Twisleton could not have been her paramour, but he had lighted into her presence when she most needed intellectual encouragement69. He must have been attracted to her because on their last meeting in London on 18 June 1872, Julia confided to her diary that that day Twisleton had taken her to the National Gallery and said, "The good Father above does not often give so great a pleasure as I have had in these meetings with you70". Finally on 2 June 1877 Julia attended vespers at Westminster Abbey, and Edward Twisleton, then dead, seemed to come back to her with "a spiritual host of blessed ones who have passed within the veil71".

    The Wingfield Viscounts Powerscourt and Fergie
    Ralph Fiennes and Fergie are double sixth cousins of the half blood through the Wingfields, a family seated in Letheringham, co., Suffolk, in the fourteenth century. First to receive a peerage was Sir Richard Wingfield in 1618 as Viscount Powerscourt, but the title expired twice before a collateral, another Richard Wingfield, was created Viscount Powerscourt in 1743 in whose line the title continues until present. He was grandfather of Richard Wingfield, fourth Viscount Powerscourt (1762-1809), the common ancestor of the Fiennes and Ferguson families72.

    Ralph Fiennes is descended twice from Richard Wingfield (1762-1809) by his second wife Isabella Brownlow, once through Hon. Emily Wingfield (d. 1827) who married the tenth Baron Saye and Sele of the 1603 creation, and secondly through the Rev. Hon. William Wingfield (1799-1880). Ralph's great-grandparents Alberic Arthur Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes (1865-1919) and Gertrude Theodosia Colley were therefore second cousins when they married. Alberic's father was the Rev. Hon. Wingfield Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes (1834-1923), and Gertrude's mother was Elizabeth Isabella Wingfield. Wingfield's mother was Emily, daughter of the fourth Viscount Powerscourt, and Elizabeth's father was William, son of the fourth Viscount Powerscourt. The Hon. Wingfield Fiennes, known as Wingy in the family, was a flirtatious, crack cricket player who charmed his American aunt, Ellen Dwight Twisleton, before he settled down to a living in the Church of England controlled by his Leigh relatives73.

    A half brother of Hon. Emily and Hon. William Wingfield, Ralph's great-great-great-grandparents on two lines, was Richard Wingfield, fifth Viscount Powerscourt (1790-1823), father of Richard Wingfield, sixth Viscount Powerscourt (1815-1844), father of Mervyn Wingfield, seventh Viscount Powerscourt (1836-1904), father of Mervyn Richard Wingfield, eighth Viscount Powerscourt (1880-1947) whose only daughter, Hon. Doreen Julia Wingfield married FitzHerbert Wright. Their daughter, Susan Mary Wright, married first Ronald Ivor Ferguson, and they were the parents of Sarah Margaret Ferguson, born 1959, who married H. R. H. Prince Andrew Albert Christian Edward, born 1960, fourth in line to the throne of England74.

    The Queen Mother, the Iron Duke, and an Anglo-Irish Novelist
    Through the Colley family Ralph Fiennes and H. R. H. the Prince of Wales are eighth cousins, and through the same lineage Ralph is a second cousin six times removed to Arthur Wesley, first Duke of Wellington (1769-1852), the Iron Duke and hero of Waterloo. In a double somersault, Ralph's Pomeroy ancestors assumed the surname of Colley in 1830 to comply with a testamentary devise while the Queen Mother's Colley ancestors assumed the surname of Wesley in 1728 to comply with another testamentary devise. The common ancestor was Henry Colley (d. 1700) whose elder son Henry Colley (d. 1723) married Lady Mary Hamilton, third daughter of James, sixth Earl of Abercorn. Their daughter Mary in 1747 married Arthur Pomeroy, first Viscount Harberton (d. 1798). Their son John, the fourth Viscount Harberton (1758-1833) was father of George Francis Pomeroy (1797-1879) who assumed the surname of Colley in 1830. His son Henry FitzGeorge Colley (1827-1886) married Elizabeth Isabella Wingfield (d. 1903), bringing for the second time the Wingfield Viscount Powerscourt into the ancestry of Ralph Fiennes. Their daughter Gertrude Theodosia Colley (d. 1934) married Alberic Arthur Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes (1865-1919) of Cumberford House, Bloxham, Banbury, Oxfordshire. Their son Sir Maurice Alberic Twisleton Fiennes (1907-1994) was the paternal grandfather of Ralph Fiennes75.

    The Colley lineage of the Queen Mother stems from Richard Colley (1690-1758), younger son of Henry Colley. Richard assumed the surname of Wesley in 1728 upon the death of his maternal cousin Garret Wesley whose estates he inherited. He was created Baron of Morington in 1746. His son Garret Wesley (1735-1781) had three sons of whom the youngest was Arthur, the first Duke of Wellington. The eldest was Richard, second Earl of Morington (1760-1842) who died without legitimate heirs but acknowledged his daughter Anne (d. 1875). The second earl was elevated to be Marquess of Wellesley in 1799 and was Governor General of India and Foreign Secretary. Anne Wesley, or Wellesley as the family had changed the spelling of their surname, married Lord William Cavendish Bentinck (d. 1826), son of William, third Duke of Portland, Prime Minister. Their son, the Rev. Charles William Frederick Cavendish Bentinck (d. 1865) was father of Nina Cecilia Cavendish Bentinck (d. 1938) who married Claude Bowles Lyon, fourteenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (d. 1944). Their daughter Elizabeth married King George VI (d. 1951). Now Queen Mother, she will celebrate her centennial birthday in August 200076.

    Ralph Fiennes's great-grandmother Gertrude Theodosia (Colley) Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes had an elder sister, Florence Isabella Colley (d. 1912) who married in 1890 Henry Cole Bowen of Bowen's Court, co. Cork, Ireland. Their daughter Elizabeth Dorothea Cole Bowen (1899-1973) was the Anglo-Irish novelist and short story writer noted for sensitive portrayals of upper middle-class society. The best known of her works published during her active career from 1923 through 1969 include The House in Paris, The Death of the Heart, The Heat of the Day, A World of Love, and Eva Trout77.

    Sir Ranulph Fiennes, The World's Greatest Explorer
    The World's Greatest Explorer as The Guinness Book of World Records calls him, Sir Ranulph Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes is a third cousin once removed to Ralph Fiennes and a second cousin to the present Baron Saye and Sele. Sir Ranulph was born posthumously 7 March 1944, third Baronet of Banbury-the title having been in an interregnum since the death of his father on 24 November 1943. He was therefore a baronet from his first breath and aristocratic to his fingertips in his attitudes. According to the dust jacket of his 1988 autobiography, Living Dangerously, as a soldier, author, adventurer, he had led the kind of life the rest of us only dream about. He is addressed as "Ran" by Prince Charles. By some magic he has persuaded the rest of the world that his indiscretions at Eton and as a captain in the Royal Scots Greys from which he was fired for blowing up a village film set with plastic explosives, were romantic youthful idylls. He redeemed himself by fighting Communist insurgents for two years in the Sultan's Armed Forces in Oman. Then he began life in earnest as the explorer who has captured the world's imagination. He journeyed up the Nile in a hovercraft, parachuted onto Europe's highest glacier, fought his way up four thousand miles of rivers in British Columbia and Alaska, crossed overland to the North Pole, and finally taking on the median of Greenwich as the path for his three-year Transglobe Expedition, a circumnavigation of the world's axis from pole to pole. He became the first man ever to reach both poles by surface travel. His awards are numerous, including the Polar Medal in 1987 from Queen Elizabeth. He is author of seven books, producer of a dozen films, and television personality78.

    Sir Ranulph inherited his drop-dead good looks from his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather. His father Lt. Col. Sir Ranulph Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes, second Baronet (1902-1943) commanded the Royal Scots Greys in 1942-3 and died of wounds in Italy in 1943. His father in turn was Sir Eustace Edward Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes (1864-1943) who after three years as a fur trapper and Canadian Mountie, traveled widely in Africa and fought in the Boer War. He became private secretary to Winston Churchill and served in Gallipoli during World War I. In 1916 he was created the first Baronet of Banbury. He in turn was the second son of John Fiennes Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes (1830-1907), later eleventh Baron Saye and Sele of the 1603 creation. The great-grandfather was known as Fiennes in the family circle and in particular charmed his American aunt, Ellen Dwight Twisleton. Of him, Aunt Ellen wrote, "I had an excellent seat, and a great deal of good-natured talk with the Hon. John Fiennes, who is first-rate and whom I like very much. He is a tall, good-looking fellow of 21, very jolly and gentlemanly at the same time and capable of carrying on79"

    A Talent of Fienneses in the Twenty-first Century
    The recently deceased grandfather of Ralph and Joseph Fiennes was Sir Maurice Alberic Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes (1907-1994), an industrialist knighted for helping the United Kingdom secure record export orders in the 1950s. He prepared at Repton and to study engineering. As managing director of Davy and United Engineering in 1945, he made it the biggest firm of its type in the Commonwealth, employing over two thousand people. He then became president of the Iron and Steel Institute and an adviser to the United Nations and the World Bank80.

    The Fiennes brothers are romantic leading actors, a species recently feared extinct. Ralph Nathaniel Fiennes (b. 1962), propelled to super stardom by Schindler's List and The English Patient, continues in the tradition of Oliver and Gielgud. The media, almost reverential to him, transmutes his moodiness into a vatic quality necessary for the exercise of genius on stage. His filmography also includes Wuthering Heights, Strange Days, Quiz Show, Oscar and Lucinda, The Avengers, Onegin, The End of the Affair, and Sunshine. Ralph's film career overshadows his talents as a painter and writer. His brother, Joseph Alberic Fiennes (b. 1970), the romantic smoulderer, jumped to fame in 1998 with leading roles in Elizabeth and Shakespeare in Love. He worked briefly as an architectural preservationist in Florence before starting his film career. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that they are but two out of seven members of a gifted nuclear family exhibiting talents in art, literature, and theater. Their father, Mark Fiennes (b. 1933), is an accomplished published photographer. Their mother, Jeni Fiennes (1938-1993), wrote under her maiden name, Jennifer Lash. Her works include Get Down There and Die, The Dust Collector, On Pilgrimage, From May to October, and Blood Ties. Her children championed her final novel, Blood Ties, had it published, and made joint promotional appearances across the United States in the summer of 1999. Another brother, Magnus Hubert Fiennes (b. 1965), a composer, wrote the score of Ralph's 1999 film Onegin, directed by their sister Martha Maria Fiennes (b. 1964). Their other sister, Sophia Victoria Fiennes (b. 1967), is a documentary film producer. Two remaining siblings have followed careers outside of the arts and outside of public view. Jacob Mark Fiennes, the tall blond fraternal twin of Joseph, is a gamekeeper on the Raveningham Hall estate of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Bt. Foster brother Michael is an archeologist. They are all young, and surely their greatest accomplishments lie ahead-a fine beginning for the twenty-first century81.


    1. Titles and Forms of Address: A Guide to Their Correct Use (4th ed.; London: A. & C. Black, 1936) noting the pronunciation of Fiennes at page 21 and that of Ralph at page 27.
    2. For a discussion of Ralph Fiennes' view on this matter, see York Membery, Ralph Fiennes: The Unauthorized Biography (London: Chameleon, 1997) pages 6-7. His name in full is Ralph Nathaniel Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes, with the name Nathaniel honoring Col. Nathaniel Fiennes, an officer in Cromwell's army.
    3. For a discussion of families whose rise to eminence in England traces to their founders' close relationship to queens who brought trains of their followers with them, see Anthony Richard Wagner, English Genealogy (Oxford: at the Clarendon Press, 1960) hereafter Wagner, English Genealogy, chapter 6, noting the Fiennes family at page 211. For connections between Pharamus, Count of Tingry, his ancestors the Counts of Boulonge, and his descendants the Lords of Fiennes, see Anthony Richard Wagner, Pedigree and Progress: Essays in the Genealogical Interpretation of History (London: Phillimore and Co., 1975), hereafter Wagner, Pedigree and Progress, in his discussion of Godfrey of Bouillon whose kinsmen acquired prescriptive right to the Swan badge, page 44, and the pedigree tables tracing those connections, especially Pedigree 1 at page 159 showing the ancestors of Sibyl who married Enguerrand de Fiennes and Pedigree 3 at page 161 showing her descendants and their connection with the Counts of Dammartin. J. Horace Round in Studies in Peerage and Family History (London, 1900) discusses the Counts of Boulogne, chapter 3, pages 147-180 and at pages 159-161 traces the grants of land to Pharamus, a maternal grandson of Geoffrey de Mandeville, from King Stephen.
    4. John C. Parsons in his Court and Household of Eleanor of Castile in 1290 (Toronto: The Pontifical Institute 1977) itemizes the marriages which the new queen arranged to advance her relatives at court.
    5. David Fiennes in "Dammartin: Further Notes and Queries," ibid., 21(1984):190-91, questions the descent of Ingleram de Fiennes II from the Dammartin wife of William de Fiennes I. He provides refutation of his doubts in introducing the idea that the William de Fiennes mentioned as an heir of Maud, Countess of Boulogne, took his inheritance by representation of his father.
    6. John C. Parsons, "Eleanor of Castile and the Countess of Ulster," Genealogists' Magazine, 20(1982):335-40, columns 670-71, chart A, and note 3. Charles Evans elaborates upon this article in his Dammartin note published in ibid. 21(1983):94.
    7. W. H. Turton, The Plantagenet Ancestry (London, 1928), 2 and 72, shows the descent of Elizabeth of York from the Mortimer Earls of March and earlier connections with the Fiennes family at pages 167 and 190. At page 190 Turton errs in stating that Ingleram Fiennes who married Sibyl de Tingry died in 1207 rather than the correct date of 1189. Turton did not trace the ancestry of Pharamus de Tingry on page 190 although Round's investigation of the Counts of Boulogne had been published in his Geoffrey de Mandeville (London, 1892), later summarized in Studies in Peerage and Family History.
    8. This is a sharp condensation of the article on the Wake baronets in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (London, 1970) noting at the top of page 2724 the confusion of the editor in stating the marriage of John, first Lord Wake to Joan (who, as a widow, oppressed the monks of Crowland), "said to have been dau. of 'William de Fenes, a Spanish Count,' and was called by Edward I 'king's cousin and kinswoman.'" Parson's Chart A, cited in note 5 above, and sources cited by him, establish the connection between the Fiennes family and the Lords Wake. Parsons explains away this confusion in Court and Household, 44.
    9. This paragraph follows the article on the twenty-first Baron Saye and Sele in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (London, 1970). Lewis C. Loyd, The Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families (London: Harleian Society, 1951), page 96, places the ancestors of the Saye family at Sai in the arrondissement and canton of Argentan.
    10. Ibid. and Complete Peerage, 11:479-96.
    11. J. Horace Round (1853-1928) pursued a lifetime isolating mediaeval concepts of inheritance and succession to estates and titles, demolishing the accretions brought into the law by Lord Coke in the seventeenth century. A union of genealogical and historical studies are his works, Studies in Peerage and Family History (London, 1901) and Peerage and Pedigree (2 vols.; London, 1910). Insightful in the Dacre case is the first volume of Peerage and Pedigree, noting the chapter "The Muddle of the Law," explaining ancient and modern doctrines of peerage succession. The Fiennes claim to the Barony of Dacre is discussed at pages 6-7, 89-92 and 152-53.
    12. This paragraph follows the article on the Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (1970), 1959-62.
    13. Since 1988 when the Dukedom of Newcastle became extinct, the family's highest honors are traced under a new heading, the Earl of Lincoln, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (1999), 1711-5.
    14. The Barony of Clinton descended without interruption until the death of the twenty-first Baron in 1957. In 1965 Gerard Nevile Mark Fane Trefusis succeeded on termination of abeyance by writ of summons. See article on the Barony of Clinton in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1970 edition, pages 578-580.
    15. Joseph M. Beatty, "Additions and Corrections," New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, 79(1948):227.
    16. This bifurcation of the Barony of Dacre is best followed in The Complete Peerage, 4:8, noting especially note g and 4:19, notes c and d. Note e states that the heir male then enjoyed a discrete title known as the Baron Dacre of Gillesland.
    17. This paragraph is a synthesis of the article on the Viscount Hampden in Burke's Peerage, 1970 edition, pages 1225-7 and "Dacre-Barons Dacre, of Gillesland, or the North," Burke's Extinct and Dormant Peerage, pages 152-3. Thomas Fiennes, ninth Baron Dacre, appears in an article in the Dictionary of National Biography, 18:1296-7 where it is stated that his conviction and execution were the express mandate of Henry VIII. Grasping courtiers obliged the king, thinking they would acquire Herstmonceux Castle.
    18. Meredith B. Colket, Jr., "The New England Children of Theophilus, Earl of Lincoln," The American Genealogist 15(1938):122-5 and Robert Charles Anderson, "Isaac Johnson," The Great Migration Begins (3 vols.; Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995) 2:1104-6.
    19. "The Life of Mr. Thomas Dudley, Several Times Governor of Massachusetts Colony, in New England," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, First Series, 11:207-22; and Alexander Young, Chronicles of the First Planters of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay from 1623-1636 (Boston, 1846; reprinted Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1975), 303-41, noting especially 303n2. Cotton Mather spoke of the family as "religious" and "the best family of any nobleman then in England." Magnalia Christi Americana, 1:126.
    20. This group of closely related New England colonists are placed in a deeper lateral pedigree in Wagner, English Genealogy, table IV and in his Pedigree and Progress, 98, 222-4, 262, noting pedigree 63 which amplifies the one in English Genealogy. David Hackett Fisher, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989) 14, 27, 40, 56, 178, and chart at 43.
    21. Complete Peerage, 11:479-81.
    22. Complete Peerage, 11: [signed by Geoffrey White], Appendix I, 148-152.
    23. Complete Peerage, 11:480, note c.
    24. Anthony Richard Wagner, "Heraldry," Genealogical Research: Methods and Sources (2 vols.; Washington, DC: American Society of Genealogists, 1980), 1:543.
    25. Complete Peerage, 11:482-3.
    26. Complete Peerage, 11:482-3 and Dictionary of National Biography, 63:230.
    27. Wagner, Pedigree and Progress, 94-5; G. D. Squibb, Founders' Kin: Privilege and Pedigree (Oxford, 1972), 37-8; C. E. Long, "Descent of the family of Wickham of Swalcliffe, Co. Oxon., and their kindred to the Founder of New College," Herald and Genealogist, 5:236; and G. H. Moberly, Life of William of Wykeham (2nd ed., 1893), 323.
    28. People, 26 April 1999, 52, quotes the present Lord Saye and Sele: "Joseph just stayed here with us, but he was busy shooting most of the time. We hardly saw him."
    29. This description of Broughton Castle derives from the 1999 edition of Burke's Peerage, 2558, which edition for the first time contains brief notices of remarkable architectural seats of the peers; Philip A. Crowl, The Intelligent Traveler's Guide to Historic Britain (N. Y.: Congdon & Week, 1983) 626, and a letter from Anthony Temple of Sandiway, Cheshire, England, to the author, 26 July 1972, reporting that Lady Saye and Sele had informed him that the court rolls at Broughton Castle are complete from the sixteenth century.
    30. Complete Peerage, 11:483-4.
    31. Complete Peerage, 11:484-5.
    32. Complete Peerage, 11: [signed by Geoffrey White], Appendix I, 148-152.
    33. Complete Peerage, 11:485.
    34. "Ralegh of Farnborough," New England Historical and Genealogical Register 145(1991):3-21, especially entry 11 under child i. at page 19, and Complete Peerage, 11:485.
    35. Descendants in the New World are listed in Gary Boyd Roberts, Notable Kin (2 vols.; Santa Clarita, California: Carl Boyer 3rd, 1999) in chapters 48 and 49, "Royal Scions in Rhode Island: Some Notable Descendants of Act. Gov. Jeremiah Clark, Gov. John Cranston, Mrs. Katherine Marbury Scott, and/or John Throckmorton," and "Major Historical Figures Descended from Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson of Boston, Rhode Island, and New York," 2:192-215.
    36. Complete Peerage 11:486-8; Dictionary of National Biography, 18:1297-1300. Modern peerages trace the branch lines of the Villiers family under the Earl of Jersey, a family ancestral to William Pitt.
    37. Henry B. Hoff, "The Temple Family of Stowe," The Genealogist, 1(1981):123-8 and the sources therein cited; and Gary Boyd Roberts, Notable Kin, 1:40 and 102. John Alexander Temple and Harald Markham Temple, The Temple Memoirs (London, 1925) traces notable descendants of Elizabeth's eldest brother, Sir Thomas Temple, first Baronet of Stowe, including Lord Cobham, Marlborough's right-hand general and dedicatee of Pope's verse; Richard Temple-Grenville, first Earl Temple; George Grenville, Prime Minister; William Pitt, Prime Minister; and Hester Stanhope, eccentric and Arabist. The Dukes of Marlborough, Earls Spencer, and the late Princess of Wales were direct descendants of Sir John Spencer of Althorp, brother of Dorothy (Spencer) Spencer, maternal grandmother of Elizabeth (Temple) Fiennes.
    38. For account of Lord Saye and Sele's agency in securing Nova Scotia for his wife's grandnephew, see John G. Reid, Acadia, Maine, and New Scotland: Marginal Colonies in the Seventeenth Century (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981) 137 and 246-7, notes 59, 62-8 and 74; Arthur Howard Buffinton, "Sir Thomas Temple in Boston: A Case of Benevolent Assimilation, Colonial Society of Massachusetts Publications, 27(1932):308-19; Sybil Noyes, Charles Thornton Libby, and Walter Goodwin Davis, Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire (Portland, Maine, 1928-39), 676-7; and Dictionary of Canadian Biography (Toronto, 1966), 1:241-2.
    39. Discussed in Wagner, English Genealogy, 251, citing A. P. Newton, The Colonizing Activities of the English Puritans (1914), 91. Providence Island is also discussed in The Complete Peerage 11:486, note e, citing Calendar State Papers Colonial, 1574-1660, 123.
    40. Discussed in The Complete Peerage 11:486, note e, citing Calendar State Papers Colonial, 1574-1660, 83-4. John Winthrop Junior's agency for Lord Saye and Sele in Connecticut, is discussed in Lawrence Shaw Mayo, The Winthrop Family in America (Boston: The Massachusetts Historical Society, 1948) 39-40 and 50.
    41. Discussed in The Complete Peerage 11:486, note e, citing Calendar State Papers Colonial, 1574-1660, 180 et seq. The inadequate discussion in John Scales, History of Dover, New Hampshire (Dover City Council, 1923), 92, 94, 95, 100-02 begs for further scholarly attention to Lord Saye and Sele's patronage of New England colonists. The only document tracing the boundaries of the patent is the unpublished "Indenture between Thomas Wiggin and the Rulers of Exeter" in the appellate case, Rawlings v. Smith, N. H. Court Files 20207, New Hampshire Archives. On the failure of Lord Saye and Sele and Lord Brooke to establish an hereditary aristocracy in New England, see "Certain Proposals Made by Lord Say, Lord Brooke and Other Persons of Quality as Conditions of Their Removing to New England, with the Answers Thereto," in Thomas Hutchinson, History of the Province and Colony of Massachusetts Bay, ed. Lawrence S. Mayo (3 vols.; Cambridge, Mass., 1936) 1:410-17.
    42. This paragraph follows the revised numbering in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1999 edition, and it is in accordance with the commentary in The Complete Peerage footnotes (11:488-96) tracing holders of the Saye and Sele titles since 1674 when James Fiennes, ninth Baron since 1447, third baron since 1603, and second viscount since 1626, died.
    43. This summary follows the sources in note 42.
    44. The only available biographical information on the seventh through ninth barons appears in The Complete Peerage, 11:493-4.
    45. For instance, Frederic Boase, Modern English Biography (3 vols.; London, 1901) 3:430, refers to Frederick as the thirteenth baron as does Burke's Extinct and Dormant Peerage, 476 while Sir Ranulph Fiennes in his autobiography, Living Dangerously (New York: Athenaeum, 1988), in the tabular pedigree at the end describes his ancestor, Frederick, as the sixteenth baron and the present baron as the twenty-first baron-indication of current usage within the family. Various editions of the British Who's Who and Who Was Who count from the 1447 creation.
    46. Since 1859 owned by the City of Boston, in custody of the Boston Public Library, it is number 599 in the catalogue raisonné by Jules David Prown, John Singleton Copley (2 vols.; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966) 2:436. Plate 600 in Prown identifies the fifty-eight subjects.
    47. Dictionary of National Biography 18:1294-6.
    48. Pedigree table in Christopher Morris, ed., The Journeys of Celia Fiennes (London: Cresset Press, 1947) xlvi-xlvii traces all the grandchildren and most of the great-grandchildren of William Fiennes, first Viscount Saye and Sele.
    49. Sir Ranulph Fiennes, Appendix 1, "The Fiennes Family," Living Dangerously (New York: Atheneum, 1981) and Membery, Ralph Fiennes, 2.
    50. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (New York: Harper and Row, 1989) 75.
    51. Morris, The Journeys of Celia Fiennes, xi.
    52. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (1970) 1574-6 shows the branch lines of Baron Leigh of Stoneleigh. It needs to be supplemented by reference to the article in the same work on the Turner baronets.
    53. [Ellen Dwight Twisleton], Letters of the Hon. Mrs. Edward Twisleton written to her family 1852-1862 (Hallowell, Maine: White and Horn, 1925; London: John Murray Press, 1928), hereafter Twisleton, Letters. Citations in this article are to the American edition because the English edition abridges some passages about Bostonians.
    54. The Complete Peerage 7:569-71 gives biographical information on the Barons Leigh of Stoneleigh.
    55. Twisleton, Letters, 4.
    56. Had Jane Austen been a genealogist, she would have delighted in writing "The Rise and Fall of Families," but she was not and the task fell to Wagner in English Genealogy, chapter 5, where he discusses the rise of the Austen and Leigh families, 180-2. The particulars of the Austen pedigree are found in William Austen-Leigh and Richard Austen Leigh, Jane Austen: A Family Record, revised and enlarged by Deidre Le Faye (1913; Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1989), Chapter 1, "Austens and Leighs 1600-1764," 1-12 and Charts III (Austen) 297 and V (Leigh) 299.
    57. John Alexander Temple and Harald Markam Temple, The Temple Memoirs (London, 1925), Chapter 14, "An Account of the Chandos Family, Which Had Become Merged in that of the Grenville Temples," 116-126 and "Appendix, with Pedigree of a Royal Descent, as Claimed by the Chandos Family," 199-201. The article on Lady Kinloss in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage includes sections on the Brandon, Grey, Seymour, Bruce, Brydges, and Grenville families from whom the heirship of the line of Lady Katherine Grey can be traced.
    58. Twisleton, Letters, 4. Hesketh Pearson in The Marrying Americans (N. Y.: Coward McCann, 1961) devotes one chapter to the Twisleton-Dwight marriage, 28-51. Samuel Eliot Morison describes his relationship to the Vaughans, Dwights, and Twisletons in his memoir, One Boy's Boston 1887-1901 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962) 70.
    59. Dictionary of National Biography, 57:390.
    60. Twisleton, Letters, 3.
    61. Walter Muir Whitehill, Boston: A Topographical History (2nd. ed.; Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968) 64, 67, and 243.
    62. L. Vernon Briggs, History and Genealogy of the Cabot Family 1475-1927 (2 vols.; Boston, 1927) 2:693-6 and 758.
    63. Gary Boyd Roberts, Notable Kin, 2:206 and 209. Benjamin W. Dwight, The History of the Descendants of John Dwight of Dedham, Mass. (2 vols.; New York, 1874) 2:894-9 and 900-01.
    64. Mary Caroline Crawford, Famous Families of Massachusetts (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1930) 2:92-103, noting especially 99n3 for connection to the Vaughan family.
    65. Emma Worcester Sargent and Charles Sprague Sargent, Epes Sargent of Gloucester and His Descendants (Boston and N.Y.: Houghton Mifflin Company at the Riverside Press, 1923), 45, especially note 1.
    66. There is no comprehensive treatment of this important American family. Skeleton pedigrees are to be found in "Vaughan of Hallowell, Maine formerly, of Ballyboe," Burke's Landed Gentry, (London, 1939), American Supplement, 2950 and continued in Mary Vaughan Marvin, Benjamin Vaughan, 1751-1835 (printed for the family, 1979) noting especially tabular pedigree "Descendants of William Manning Vaughan as of 1979" at page 151. The most detailed account of the earlier generations is John H. Sheppard, "Reminiscences and Genealogy of the Vaughan Family," New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 19(1865):343-56 and should be supplemented by two other good accounts: Emma Huntington Nason, Old Hallowell on the Kennebec (Augusta, Maine, 1909), Chapter VII, "The Vaughan Family," pages 73-98 and Chapter VIII, "John Merrick, Esq.," pages 99-106; and William Warren Vaughan, Hallowell Memories (Hallowell, Maine: White and Horn, 1931). An invaluable account of the Charles Vaughan line is George Bachelor Vaughan, "Genealogy: Descendants of William Vaughan, b. circa 1620," typescript 18 pages together with "Catalogue of Papers of Charles Vaughan Family," typescript 58 pages with appendix of 39 pages with various paginations giving transcript of selected documents in the collection. (June 1988 at the time of the presentation of the collection to Bowdoin College).

      The foregoing should be supplemented by Alexander DeConde, "Benjamin Vaughan," American National Biography, 22:289-90; Murray C. Crain, Benjamin Vaughan: The Life of an Anglo-American Intellectual (1982); R. H. Gardiner, "Memoir of Dr. Benjamin Vaughan," Maine Historical Society Collections, 1st Series, 6(1859):85-92; Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., "John Vaughan," American National Biography, 22:294-6; Edna Vosper, "Benjamin Vaughan," Dictionary of American Biography, 19:233-5; Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd Series, 17(1903):409-38; Robert Greenhalgh Albion, "Charles Vaughan," Dictionary of American Biography, 19: 235; Katherine H. Snell and Vincent P. Ledew, Historic Hallowell (Hallowell, Maine: Hallowell Bicentennial Committee, 1962), 32-3 and 38-9; and Laura E. Richards, "Ellen Twisleton Vaughan (Mrs. W. W. Vaughan) 1849-1934" in Laura E. Richards and Gardiner (Gardiner Library Association, 1940), 110.
    67. Laura E. Richards and Maud Howe Elliott, Julia Ward Howe 1819-1910, (2 vols.; Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1916) 1:133.
    68. Gary Williams, Hungry Heart: The Literary Emergence of Julia Ward Howe (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999) 123-5, 150, 176, 247-9, 258, and 261-2.
    69. Deborah Pickman Clifford, Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1979), 107, 110, 117, 122, 172, and 195-6.
    70. Julia Ward Howe, 1:314.
    71. Julia Ward Howe, 2:6.
    72. Viscount Powerscourt in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (1970) 2170-74.
    73. Ibid., 2173 and Twisleton, Letters, 142-3.
    74. NEXUS, 16:116.
    75. The Pomeroy Viscounts Harberton are traced in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (1970) 1237-8, including their later Colley descendants whose male issue are in remainder to the viscounty. The senior line of the Colley family since the sixteen century in Ireland are traced under the Duke of Wellington, Ibid., 2784-7 including the Wesley ancestors of the Colleys who assumed that name in 1728 and later transformed it into the more elegant spelling of Wellesley.
    76. The descent of the Queen Mother from the Marquess of Wellesley is traced by Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk, Royal Highness: Ancestry of the Royal Child (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1982), 17.
    77. The essential critical study of Bowen is Victoria Glendinning, Elizabeth Bowen: Portrait of a Writer (London, 1977; N.Y., 1978). It is summarized in British Writers (N.Y.: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992) Supplement 2:77-96.
    78. Living Dangerously; Chamber's Biographical Dictionary (1997), 644; and Who's Who (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999), 662.
    79. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (1999), 2866 and Twisleton, Letters, 24.
    80. Membery, Ralph Fiennes, 2 and Who's Who 1985-6 (London, 1985), 633.
    81. There is an embarrassment of riches marred, in some instances, by a lack of taste in the popular media. However some useful references are the following: for Jennifer Lash, Contemporary Authors (London and Detroit: Gale Research, 1999) 168:187-8. For Ralph Fiennes, besides entries in both the American and English Who's Who, see Current Biography Yearbook 1996 (N. Y.: H. W. Wilson Co., 1996), 134-7 and Newsmakers: The People Behind Today's Headlines: 1996 Cumulation (Detroit: Gale Research, 1996), 156-9; and the only authorized statement of Mr. Fiennes is an article by him, "Shooting Puskin," New Yorker, 7 June 1999, 44-50. Joseph Fiennes has yet to appear in Who's Who (either in America or England) and does not appear in an edited reference work; however an interview by Geoffrey Rush, the actor, with Joseph Fiennes appears in Interview, August 1999, 29:78-83, seems a reasonable falte de mieux reference until an article about him appears in a standard reference work. A double-page spread, color photograph of the Fiennes frères à trois appears in People, 6 December 1999, 16. A color photograph of Martha Fiennes with brother Ralph appears in Parade 2 January 2000, 2. A photograph of Sophia Fiennes with brothers Ralph and Joseph appears in Publishers Weekly, 16 August 1966, 31 and in The New York Times, 29 July 1999, B1 together with an article by Ralph Blumemthal, "The Famous Fiennes [sic] and Their Mother's 'Blood Ties,'" extending to page B3. An interview with the father, Mark Fiennes, appears in Danny Danzinger, Eton Voices (New York: Viking Press, 1988), 90-8. Finally, of the brother who is not in the artistic or performing profession, "The Natural Talent of Jake Fiennes," Country Homes and Interiors, September 1998. As cadet members of the family of Lord Saye and Sele, this branch of the family as remaindermen to the barony appear in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (1999), 2557. There are presently about sixty heirs in expectancy to the barony ahead of Ralph.

    Danny D. Smith holds a degree in history from Colby College and is Curator of Special Collections at the Gardiner Public Library, Gardiner, Maine. He acknowledges help to obtain information from Earle G. Shettleworth, Jr., Director of the Maine Historic Preservation Commission; Benjamin F. Keating, Assistant Director of the Maine State Library; and Anne E. Davis, Director of the Gardiner Public Library. David Curtis Dearborn, FASG, offered comment. Marjory Whitehurst, Alna, Maine, read the article in draft and offered suggestions.

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