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    In this exhibit, the R. Stanton Avery Special Collections has selected items from their extensive collection of family papers and institutional records to pay tribute to students past and present.
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  • Reverend Richard Mather's "Journal to New England," 1635

  • Reverend Richard Mather's IntroRichard Mather was born in 1596 in the town of Lowton, in Lancaster County, England. He was the father of Increase Mather, and the grandfather of famed Boston minister and Salem witch trial advocate Cotton Mather. After completing his education, he became minister of the Episcopal Church at Toxteth, near Liverpool. His Puritan beliefs conflicted with the policies of the Church of England and he was removed from the ministry in 1633. To avoid further persecution, Mather made the decision to sail to New England. He and his family began their journey from Brighton, England, on May 23, 1635, arriving at Boston on August 17 of that year. He became minister of the church in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1636, where he remained until his death in 1669.


    Rev. Mather kept a journal of his entire voyage, in which he describes in rich detail the wonders and hardships of the sea, and vividly depicts a life-threatening hurricane that occurred near the end of the journey. NEHGS has the original journal in its R. Stanton Avery Collections, and we are pleased to share the images and transcription of this historic treasure with you in this latest installment of "Tales from the Manuscript Collections."

    The journal was originally in the collections of the Dorchester Antiquarian and Historical Society, which was instituted on January 27, 1843, for the "collection and preservation of books, pamphlets, manuscripts and curiosities, bearing on the biography and history of men and things in the United States, from the earliest period." The Society was incorporated on May 3, 1855. On September 18, 1871, the Dorchester Antiquarian and Historical Society deposited a large number of books, pamphlets, "and other objects" at NEHGS including the 1635 journal of Rev. Richard Mather [Mss 624, folder 150] and a transcription of the journal published by this Society [Rare Book F74/D5/D5 v.3]. After the deaths of William Blake Trask (also NEHGS librarian and editor of the Register) in 1906 and Henry G. Denny in 1907, all records and activity of the Dorchester Antiquarian and Historical Society ceased. For more information on this collection see "Dorchester Antiquarian and Historical Society Records" in the Summer 2002 edition of New England Ancestors magazine.

    Mr. Richard Mather Journal to New England. 1635. Mr. Richard Mather Journal to New England. 1635.

    Reverend Richard Mather's 02

    praise the Lord oh my soule, and all that is within mee, prayse his holy name! Praise the Lord oh my soule, and forget not all his benefits; yea, let all that is within mee and all that is without mee praise his holy name. And let every thing that hath breath praise the name of the Lord for ever and ever. Who gave unto us his poore servants, such a safe and comfortable voyage to New England. The particular passages whereof were as fulloweth.

    1635 Apr 16
    came from Warrington on Thursday April 16, and came to Bristoll on the Thursday following, viz. April 23, and had a very healthfull, safe and prosperous journey all ye way, blessed bee the name of or God for the same, taking but easy journeyes because of the children and footemen, dispaching 119 or 120 miles in seven dayes.

    Comming to Bristoll wee found divers of the company come before us ; but some came not till after us : howbeit the last was come by the first of May. Neverthelesse we went not aboard ye ship untill Saturday the 23d of May : so that the time of or staying in Bristoll was a month and two dayes, during all wch time wee found friendship and [May 23] curtesy at the hands of divers godly Christians in Bristoll. Yet

    Reverend Richard Mather's 03
    May 23
    stay was grievous unto us, when wee considered how most of this time the windes were easterly and served directly for us; But or ship was not ready : so ill did or owners deale with us.

    Going aboard ye ship in King roade the 23d of May, wee found things very unready, and all on heapes, many goodes beeing not stowed, but lying on disordered heapes, here and there in the ship. This day there came aboard the ship 2 of the searchers, and viewed a list of all or names, ministered the oath of allegiance to all at full age, viewed or certificates from the ministers in the parishes from whence wee came, approved well thereof, and gave us tickets, that is, Licenses under their handes and seales, to passe the seas, and cleared the ship, and so departed. When wee came to King roade (which is a spacious har­bor of 5 or 6 miles broad, and 4 or 5 miles distant from Bristoll) wee found neere or ship another ship of Bristoll, called the Diligence, bound for New-found-land, riding at ancre.

    The 24th beeing the Lorde's day, the wind was strong in the morning, and yeship daunced, and many of or women and some children were not well; but sea-sicke, and mazy or light in their heades, and could scarce stand or go without falling, unlesse they tooke hold of some­thing to uphold them. This day Mr. Maud was excer-cised in the forenoone, and I in the afternoone. The wind still easterly.

    The 25th, wee that were passengers would faine have had ancre weighed, and sayle set, yt wee might have

    may have beene gone. But ye mariners would insiste that they could not stirre till ye goodes were stowed and the hatches or deck above cleared, &c. So wee were forced to sit still, and fall in hand with the goodes; wch stay was a greater griefe unto us, because the Diligence, yt lay within 2 or 3 stones cast of us did this morning go out in orsight.

    The Tuesday morning the wind beeing easterly and the decke somewhat cleared, the mariners began to addresse themselves for going.   But about nine of the clocke, when they had taken up one of their ancres, and were in a manner ready to set forward, the wind turned directly agt us, unto the west, so yt wee were forced to cast ancre againe, and sit still. This evening the Diligence, yt went out ye day before, came in againe, and cast ancre about the place where shee lay before ; and found us riding at ancre where shee left us; and another ship also bound for New England came unto us, which other ship was called the Angel Gabriel.

    On Wednesday the wind continuing still at ye west, wee having sent some of ormen a shoar to fech more bread and victuals and more water for the cattell; our Master Captayne Taylor went aboard the Angel Gabriel; Mr. Maud, Nathaniel Wales, Barnabas Fower, Thomas Armitage and my selfe accompanying him. When wee came there wee found divers passengers, and among them some loving and godly Christians that were glad to see us there. And soone after wee were come aboard there, there came three or four

    Reverend Richard Mather's 04

    more boates with more passengers, and one wherein came Sir Ferdinando Gorge, who came to see the ship and the people. When hee was come hee enquired whether there were any people there yt went to Massachusets Bay, whereupon Mr. Maud and Barnabas Fower were sent for to come before him; who being come he asked Mr. Maud of his country, occupa­tion or calling of life, &c., and professed his good will to the people there in yebay, and promised that if hee ever came there, hee would be a true friend unto them.

    On Thursday, the wind befog still at west, the Mr of the Angel Gabriel, and some of their passengers, came aboard or ship, and desired to have orcompany &c. This day their cattel came aboard, and or Mr and some of the saylors and passengers went a shoare.

    Friday morning, the wind was south-east, but or Mas­ter and some of the mariners being away, we could not set sayle ; so being constrayned to ride at ancre still, and fearing a want if or journey should proove long, some of or company were sent by boat to Bristoll, to provide some more oates for the cattel, and bread, and other provisions for or selves, wch they performed, and so came aboard again at evening.

    Saturday at morning the wind was strong at north-west; and against or going out, and besides or   Master and some of the saylors were gone ashore and not
    come aboard againe ; so that this day also wee were constrayned to sit still. In the afternoone ye wind waxed louder, and or ship daunced with wind and waves ; and many passen­gers, especially women and some children, were sea-sicke.

    The 2d Sabbath on ship-board. The wind easterly, and directly for us; but orMaster and many of the saylores beeing away, and it being also the Lords day, there could bee no going out yt day. I was excercised in the forenoone, and Mr. Maud in ye afternoone.

    June 1
    Munday the wind was westerly, and agt us. This day we sent some of orcompany ashoare to wash linnens, and some to buy more hay and provisions. Towardes night ye wind grew stronger and or ship daunced and many of ye passengers were ill through casting and sea-sicknesse.

    Tuesday, the wind still westerly. This day wee sent some of or people ashoare to provide more water, and hay for the cattel.

    Wednesday morning, the wind was easterly and good for our purpose; but or Master and many of ye saylors went away, and those yt were aboard with us told us it was no going out till the wind was settled, lest we should be forced to come in again upon change of wind, as the Diligence was. This evening there came to ancre in King-roade another ship of Bristoll of 240 tunne, called ye Bess, or Elizabeth, bound for

    Reverend Richard Mather's 05

    New-fond-land, as there had done another two or three dayes before, called the Mary, which was also bound for New-fond-land.

    June 4
    Thursday morning, the wind serving for us, and or Mas­ter and all the saylors being come aboard, wee set sayle and began or sea-voyage with glad hearts yt God had loosed us from or long stay wherein we had been holden, and with hope and trust that hee would graciously guide us to the end of or journey. We were yt set sayle together yt morning five shippes; three bound for New-fond-land, viz. the Diligence, a ship of 150 tunne; the Mary, a small ship of 80 tunne, and the Bess: and two bound for New-England, viz. the Angel Gabriel of 240 tunne, the James of 220 tunne. And even at or setting out, we yt were in the James had experience of God's gracious providence over us, in yt the Angel Gabriel hal­ing home one of her ancres, had like, being carried by the force of the tide, to have fallen foule upon ye forept of or ship, wch made all the mariners as well as passengers greatly afraid ; yet by the guidance of God, and his care over us, she passed by without touching so much as

    much as a cable or a cord, and so we escaped yt danger. This day wee went about ten or twelve leagues afore 12 of yeclocke, and then the wind turned to ye west, and ye tide also was agt us; so yt wee were forced to come to ancre againe in ye channel, betweene Wales and Winnyard in Sommersett shire, and there wee abode till about six or seven of ye clocke at night; and then ye tide turning for us, wee tacked about with ye tide too and fro as ye wind would suffer, and gained little yet continued all night till about two of ye clocke after midnight, and then (ye tide turning)

    Friday morning, the wind still strong at west, we tack­ed about againe with the tide too and fro till about one of ye clocke after dinner ; about wch time ye tide and wind being both against us we came to ancre againe within sight of Lundy, about two leagues short thereof. Which Lundy is an Iland about 20 leagues short of ye landes end, and 28 leagues from King roade. This day many passengers were very sea-sicke; and ill at ease through much vomiting. This day at night when ye tide turned, wee set sail againe, and so came [6] Saturday morning to ancre againe, under Lundy, where abiding because ye wind was strong agt us four of us were desirous to [go] ashoare into ye Iland; and speaking thereof  to or master hee was very willing to satisfy us therein, and went with us

    Reverend Richard Mather's 06
    June 6
    himselfe, Mr. Maude, Mathew Michel, Geo. Kenrick, myselfe, and some others accompanying him. When wee came into the Hand, wee found onely one house therein, and walking in it from side to side, and end to end, one of yehouse beeing with us, wee found 30 or 40 head of cat-tell, about 16 or 20 horses, and mares, goates, swine, geese, &c. and fowle and rabbets innumerable ; the Iland is 1700 acres of land, but yeeldes no corne. Here wee got some milke and fowle and cheese, which things my children were glad of, and so came aboard againe; but ye wind beeing strong agt us, especially towardes night, nee rode there all night, and ye next day, and many of our passengers were ye evening very sicke.

    The third Sabbath on shipboard: This day the wind still at west against us, we lay still under Lundy. Mr. Maude was excercised in ye forenoone and I in ye afternoon.

    Munday the wind still strong at west. This day wee sent some of or people on shoare to Lundy to fech more water for yecattel.

    Tuesday ye wind still strong agt us. This  morning ye 5 ships beeing all weary of lying at Lundy, because the harbour was not very good, and seeing the wind still contrary,

    weighed ancre againe and set sayle for Milford haven, which is fourteen leagues from Lundy, and lyes upon Pembrooke shire in Wales, and came thither that night. This day as wee came from Lundy to Milford haven, the sea wrought and was rough, and most of the passengers were very sicke, worse yn ever before.

    Wednesday the wind still agt us, wee lay still in Milford haven : and most of or people were in good health, and many went on shoare into the country ; and brought more fresh water for the cattel, more fresh victuals, as egges, loafe bread, fresh fish, &c. which things or children were glad of.

    Thursday: the wind still agt us; many went ys day also on shoare, to take the ayre, view yecountrey, &c., and some of us upon businesse to provide more hay, and provisions.

    Friday: A knight of the country dwelling neere Hart­ford west being aboard the Diligence, sent for mee to come to speake with him : much wondering we had what should bee the matter, seeing I never knew him, nor hee mee. When I came to him he used me curteously, invited me to his house, wished us all good successe, lamented the losse of

    Reverend Richard Mather's 07 June 12
    them yt stayed behind, when so many of the best people for upholding religion were removed and taken away. The knights name is Sir James Parret.

    Saturday, wind still against us.

    The 4th Sabbath on ship-board. This day Mr. Maud, Mathew Michel, and many of or passengers and of the Angel Gabriel's went to a church on shoare called Nangle, where they heard two good and comfortable sermons, made by an ancient, grave minister living at Pembrooke, whose name is Mr. Jessop. His text was ps. 91: 11. He will [give] his angels charge, &c.; and his comming was purposely for the comfort and encouragement of us yt went to N. England. I was excercised on ship-board both endes of the day, remayning there for the helpe of ye weaker and inferior sort, that could not go on shoare.

    Munday, I went on shore to Nangle, with my wife and children ; John Smith and his wife, and Mary ; Su­san Michel and divers others. It was a faire day, and wee walked in the fields, and at a house got some milke, &c.,

    wherewith wee were much refreshed, and came aboard againe at evening.

    Tuesday, a raynie day, the wind still agt us.

    Wednesday, the wind still agt us.

    Thursday, the wind still agt us: This day in the morning orMaster and the seamen, sent away and set on shoare one of the seamen, called Jephrey Cornish, who had fallen out and been in quarrelling and fighting with some of the seamen. The maine matter alleadged agt him was his drunkennesse, and blasphemy, and brawling and cursing in his drunkennesse. In the afternoone there came to the Angel Gabriel and to or ship, Mr. Jessop, to see the Christians bound for New England. He was a grave and godly old man, one yt had lost a good living, because of his non-comformity, and wished us all well, and we
    were much refreshed with his godly company and conference.

    Friday, a foggy morning ; wind still westerly.

    Saturday, the wind still hovering too and fro.

    The 5th Sabbath on ship-board ; a faire cheereful sum­mer day. This day I was excercised both ends of the day

    Reverend Richard Mather's 08 June 21
    and had much comfort therein, because the fairenesse of the day freed us from distraction, and fitted us the better for attendance; besides, the day was more comfortable to us all, in regard to ye company of many godly christians from ye Angel Gabriel, and from other vessels lying in the haven with us, who wanting meanes at home were glad to come to us, and wee were also glad of their company ; and had all of us a very comfortable day, and were much refreshed in the Lord.

    Munday morning, the wind serving with a strong gale at east, wee set saile from Milford haven where wee had waited for wind twelve dayes; and were carried forth with speedy course ; and about no one lost all sight of land. The wind beeing strong, the sea was rough this day, and most of or passengers were very sicke, and ill, through much casting.

    Tuesday: The wind still easterly, and a very rainy day; wee were carried forward apace, and lanched forth a great way into ye deepe; but or people were still very sicke. This day at evening we lost sight of the three shippes bound for New-fond-land, which had beene in company with as from King roade, and or

    Master thought it best for us to stay for the Angel Gabriel, beeing bound for New-England as wee were, rather than to leave her, and go with the other three. The Angel Gabriel is a strong ship, and well furnished with fourteene or sixteene pieces of ordnance, and therefore or seamen rather desired her company ; but yet shee is slow in sailing, and there­fore wee went sometimes with three sayles lesse than wee might have done, yt so we might not overgoe her.

    Wednesday, the wind still at east, but not so strong as the other 2 dayes before. This morning wee saw abund­ance of porpuyses leaping and playing about or ship; and spent a great deale of time, till two or three clocke in the afternoone in pursuing (with the Angel Gabriel) another ship which wee supposed to have beene a Turk­ish Pirate, and to have taken the Mary : The ground of which supposall was because yesternight the Mary was in our sight behind her fellows, and a little ship like to the Mary had beene with the other ship this morning when wee first espied them. But the little ship pted from ye other, and wee doubted shee had beene the Mary

    Reverend Richard Mather's 09 June 24
    taken and sent away as a prize by the Turke ; and this made us more willing to pursue y ; but not beeing able to over­take them, wee left pursuing, and turned or course againe our owne way.

    Thursday, the wind still easterly : in the morning wet and rainy, but about noone a faire sunshine day. Many of or passengers yt had been sicke before, began to bee farre better, and came with delight to walk above upon ye decke.

    Friday, wind at north and afterward more westward. This day wee saw many porpuyses leaping and running like about or ship.

    Saturday, wind still north-west; but a faire coole day.

    The first Sabbath from Milford haven, and the sixth on shipboard, a faire coole day; wind northerly, good for or purpose; I was excercised in the forenoone, and Mr. Maude in the afternoone. This evening wee saw por­puyses about ye ship, and some would fayne have been striking, but others dissuaded because of the Sabbath, and so it was let alone.

    Munday morning, wind still northerly; a faire coole day. This morning about seven of ye clocke or seamen stroke a great porpuyse, and haled it with ropes into ye ship; for bignesse not much lesse than an hogge of 20 or 25 shillings a piece, and not much unlike for shape ; with flesh fat and leane, like in color to the

    fat and leane of an hogge, and being opened upon ye decke had within his entrails, as liver, lights, heart, guts, &c., for al ye world like a swyne. The seeing of him haled into ye ship, like a swyne from ye stye to the tressle, and opened upon ye decke in viewe of al or company, was wonderful to us all, and marvellous merry sport and delightful to or women and children ; so good was or God unto us, in affording us the day before spiritual refreshing to or soules, and ys day morning also delightful recreation to or bodyes, at ye tak­ing and opening of ys huge and strange fish. In the afternoone the Angel Gabriel sent their boate to or ship, to see how wee did, and ormaster Captayne Taylor went aboard yeAngel, and tooke Mathew Michel and mee along with him. When we came thither we found yrpas­sengers yt had beene sea-sicke now wel recovered the most of them ; and 2 children yt had had the smal pockes, wel recovered againe. Wee were intreated to stay supp there with their master, &c. and had good cheere, mutton boyled and rosted, rested turkey, good sacke, &c. After which loving and curteous entertainment wee tooke leave, and came aboard yeJames again at night.

    Tuesday, a faire hot summer day, hut smal wind. This day wee saw with wonder and delight abundance of porpuyses, and likewise

    Reverend Richard Mather's 10
    June 30
    and likewise some crampushes as big as an oxe, puffing and spewing up water as they went by the ship.

    July 1
    Wednesday, a faire hot summer day, but ye wind west­erly, so yt we gained little yt day.

    Thursday, rayny in ye morning, but in ye afternoone faire and cleare; but little wind all day.

    Friday, wind strong at south-ward. We were carried on apace; after 8 or 9 leagues a wach as ye sea-men con­ceived. (A wach is foure houres; a league is three miles.) This day some few of ye weakest passengers had some small remembrance againe of sea-qualmes and sea-sicknesse.

    Saturday ; a very strong wind, but not much for us. This day ye sea was very rough and we saw ye truth of yt Scripture; ps. 107. Some were very sea-sicke, but none could stand or go upon ye decke, because of ye toss­ing and tumbling of yeship. This day we lost sight of y Angel Gabriel, sayling slowly behind us, and we never saw her againe any more.

    The 2d Sabbath from Milford haven, and ye seventh on ship. This day God was very gracious unto us, in giving a faire, calme, sun-shine day, yt we might above upon ye decke excercise orselves in his worship

    for if this day had beene as yeformer for wind, and rayne, wee could not have knowne how to have sanctified yeSabbath in any comfortable manner. I was excercised in ye forenoone, and Mr. Maud in ye afternoone.

    Munday, wind north and north-east ; good for us, had it beene strong enough ; but beeing but weake, we could not dispach much way. A faire day and or people were most of ym hearty and cheerefull. This morning Mathew Michell and I spake to or Mr desiring him that we might not stay for the Angel; because wee doubted orhay for or cattel would not hold out, and many caskes of water were leaked and spent; to wch request he gave free assent, and caused ye saylors to make all ye saile they possibly could: and so wee went yt day as ye soft wind could drive us.

    Tuesday, a fayre day but soft wind at south; or people cheereful and in good health.

    Wednesday, wind westerly; yet by tacking southward and northward, wee gayned as ye seamen conceived 20 or 21 leagues.

    Reverend Richard Mather's 11 July 9
    Thursday, a strong wind at northwest; wch made ye sea somewhat rough. Yet ye passengers by ye mercy of God were few of ym sea-sicke. This day and two dayes before, we saw following ye ship a little bird like a swal­low called a Pitterill, wch they say doth follow ships against foule weather. And wee saw also this afternoone by ye shipside a great crampush as big as an oxe.

    Friday, wind westerly; so yt we could gaine little. A fayre day, and or people generally in good health.

    Saturday, much like.

    The 3d Sabbath from Milford, and ye 8th on ship board ; a very faire day, so yt wee had liberty to serve God, without distraction and disturbance from weather. Mr. Maud was excercised in ye forenoone and I in ye after­noone. Wind south-ward.

    Munday, a foggy misty day, but a good gale of wind at south and by east; wch carried us apace after 10 leagues a wach.

    Tuesday, also very foggy and misty ; wind

    southerly ; but about noone became calme.

    Wednesday, a strong wind, northerly ; which made ye sea rough, yet we went about eight or nine leagues a wach. Few of us were sea-sicke, tho: a wind not so strong and sea not so rough would in ye beginning of or journey have wrought more upon us; but now we were better used unto it.

    Thursday, a fayre day ; tho: ye wind beeing westerly carried us more to ye south-ward than else we desired. This day we saw with wonder and delight an innumera­ble multitude of porpuyses leaping and playing about the ship. Towards evening ye wind was little.

    Friday, calme in ye morning; but  afore noone ye wind waxed strong at north, and so continued all day, and ear­ned us a good speed in or course

    Saturday, wind north-west, a fayre coole day Wee saw this morning a great many of Bonnyetoes leaping and playing about ye ship Bonyetoe is a fish somewhat big­ger yn a cod but lesse than a porpuise

    Reverend Richard Mather's 12
    July 19
    Sabbath, a fayre forenoone, but at noone the wind became stiffe westward, wch was agt us In ye afternoone it blew so loud yt my voyce could scarce be heard, tho I extended it to ye farthest yt I could.

    Munday, a foggy and misty day ; wind about north­west We saw this day divers dolphins playing about ye ship, and many sea fowle, Hagbats and others

    Tuesday morning, a great calme, after an hot night This morning or seamen tooke a Bonyetoe, and opened him upon yedecke, of wch beeing dressed or master sent Mathew Michel and mee part, as good fish in eating, as could bee desired. About noone yewind became north­east, good for or purpose, so yt wee went yt afternoone

    Wednesday, wind still about north-east, but not so strong as ye day before. Now we saw every day abundance of sea-fowle, as Pitterels hagbats, &c.

    Thursday morning, a fine gale of wind at north and by east. Now we saw ys morning abundance 

    of porpuyses and crampushes, leaping and spewing up water about ye shippe. About 8 or 9 of ye clocke ye wind blew more stiffely, and wee went about 8 or 9 leagues a wach. Towards evening or seamen deemed yt we were neere to some land   because yecolor of ye water was changed; but sounding with a line of an  hundred and sixty fathom, they could find no bottome.    It was a very could wind, like as if it had beene winter, wch made some to wish for more cloathes.

    Friday, wind still northerly, but very faint It was a great foggy mist, and exceeding coulde as it had beene December One would have wondered to have seene ye innumerable numbers of foule which wee saw swimming on every side of ye ship, and mighty fishes rowling and tumbling in ye waters, twise as long and big as an oxe. In ye afternoone wee saw mighty whales spewing up water in ye ayre like ye smoake of a chimney, and making ye sea about them white and hoary as it is said Job [xli. 32], of such incredible bignes yt I will never wonder yt ye body of Jonas could bee in ye belly of a whale. At evening or seamen sounded and found ground at 50 fathom.

    Saturday morning they sounded againe and found no bottom, conceiving thereby yt wee were yeday before

    Reverend Richard Mather's 13 July 25
    on New fond-land banke on ye end of it neerer to New Eng­land. This day about 9 of ye clocke, ye wind turned from beeing northerly, and came about by ye east unto ye south, and ye great fog vanished away, and it became a cleare sun-shine day. This day Mathew Michel and I taking notice yt ye hay and water waxed scarce, went to or Mr intreating him to tell us how farre he conceived us to want of or journeyes end yt so wee might better know how to order or water and provisions for or cattel wch yt were all alive and in good liking, and he thereupon summed up all ye passages of our journey past, and conceived 250 leagues to be yet remayning unfinished. On Friday in ye evening wee had an houre or two of marveylous delightful recreation, wch also was a feast unto us for many dayes after, while we fed upon ye flesh of three huge por-puyses, like to as many fat hogs striked by or seamen and haled with ropes into ye ship : yeflesh of ymwas good meate with salt, peper, and vinegar; ye fat like fat bacon ; the leane like bull-beefe : and on Saturday evening they tooke another also.

    The 5th Sabbath from Milford haven & yetenth on ship-board ; a fayre sunshine summer day, and would

    have beene very hot, had not God allayed ye heate with a good gale of southerly wind, by wch also wee were carried on in orjourney after seven leagues a wach. I was excercised in ye forenoons and Mr. Maude in the afternoone. In the afternoone ye wind grew stronger; and it was a rough night for wind and raine, & some had or beds yt night ill wett with raine leaking in through ye sides of ye ship.

    Munday, wind still strong at south. This day wee spent much time in filling divers tunnes of emptied caske with salt water: wch was needfull, because much beere, fresh water, beefe, & other provisions being spent, ye ship went not so well, being too light for want of ballast. When this worke was done wee set forth more saile, & went yt evening and all ye night following with good speed in or journey.

    Tuesday morning, a great calme, & very hot all yt forenoone; or people & cattel beeing much afflicted with faintnesse, sweating & heate: but (loe ye goodness of or God) about noone ye wind blew at north and by east, wch called us from or heate and holpe us forward in or way. This afternoone there came and light upon or ship a little land-bird with blew colored feathers, about the bigness of a sparrow, by which some conceyved we were

    Reverend Richard Mather's 14 July 28
    not farre from land.

    Wednesday, not extreamely hot, but a good gale of cool­ing wind ; but yet beeing at ye west & by north it was against us in or  way; so yt wee were forced to tacke northward and southward & gayned little.

    Thursday, wind still westerly agt us all ye forenoone, but about one of ye clocke ye Lord remembered us in mercy, and sent us a fresh gale at south; which though weake and soft, yet did not only much mitigate ye heate, but also holpe us something forward in or way. In ye eve­ning about sun-setting, wee saw with admiration and de­light innumerable multitudes of huge crampushes rowling and tumbling about ye sides of ye ship, spewing and puff­ing up water as they went, and pursuing great numbers of Bonytoes & lesser fishes; so marvellous to behold are ye workes and wonders of the Almighty in ye deepe.

    Friday, a great foggy mist all ye forenoone, & ye wind west north-west, which was agt us. In ye afternoone yemist vanished & ye day cleared up, but ye wind still agt us, so that wee gayned little, beeing forced to runne a by course, via. north and by east, and at night to runne south­ward.

    August 1
    Saturday morning, a coole wind at north, where

    by  wee went on in or course an houre or two, tho: very slowly because of the weakenesse of ye wind. Afterwards it became a great calme; and or seamen sounded about one  of ye clocke, and found ground at 60 fathom. Presently after another little land-bird came and light upon ye sayles of ye ship. In yecoole of ye evening (the calme still continuing) or seamen fished with hooke and line & tooke cod, as fast as they could hale ym up into the ship.

    The 6th Sabbath from Milford & ye 11th on ship-board. This day was a day of refeshing to us; not only because of preaching & prayers, well wee enjoyed for ye good of or soules ; but also by reason of abundance of foule which wee saw swimming in ye sea, as a token of neerenesse of land; besides or bodyes fed sweetly on the fresh cod taken ye day before, of which or Mr sent Mr. Maud & mee good store. And ye wind blew with a coole & com­fortable gale at south all day, which carried us away with great speed towards orjourneyes end. So good was or loving God unto us as alwayes, so also this day. Mr. Maud was excercised in ye forenoone & I in ye afternoone.

    But lest wee should grow secure, and neglect ye Lord through abundance of prosperity,

    Richard Mather Journal Page 15 August 3
    or wise and loving God was pleased on Munday morning about three of ye clocke, wn wee were upon yecoast of land, to excercise us with a sore storme & tempest of wind and raine: so yt many of us passengers with wind & raine were raised out of or beds, and orseamen were forced to let down all yesayles : and yeship was so tossed with fearefull mountaynes and val-
    leyes of water, as if wee should have beene overwhelmed & swallowed up. But ys lasted not long : for at or poore prayeres ye Lord was pleased to magnify his mercy in as­suaging ye winds ye seas againe about sun-rising. But ye wind was become west agt us, so yt wee floated upon ye coast, making no dispach of way all yt day and the night following ; and besides there was a great fog and mist all yt day, so yt wee could not see to make land, but kept in all sayle, and lay still, rather loosing yn gayning, but tak­ing abundance of cod and hallibut, wherewith or bodyes were abundantly refreshed after they had beene tossed with ye storme.

    Tuesday: ye fog still continued all forenoone: about noone ye day cleared up, and ye wind blew with a soft gale at south, and wee set sayle againe, going on in or course tho: very slowly because of the smalnesse of ye wind. At night it was a calme and abundance of raine.

    Wednesday morning wee had a little wind at north, but a foggy forenoone. In ye afternoone ye day some­what cleared, but it became a calme againe. Thus ye Lord was pleased with foggy mists & want of winds to excercise or patience & wayting upon his good leysure ; still keeping us from sight of land, when or seamen conceyved us to bee upon ye coast. This day in ye after­noone wee saw multitudes of great whales, which now was grown ordinary and usuall to behold.

    Thursday, a foggy morning, afterward a very hot day and great calme ; so yt wee could make noe way, but lay still floating upon ye coast, and could not come to any sight of land. 

    Friday morning, a great fog still; and a slender soft wind at west south-west. In yeafternoone ye wind wak­ened, and wee went forward with good speed, tho: too farre northward, because yewind was so much on ye west.

    Richard Mather Journal Page 16
    August 8
    Saturday morning we had a good gale of wind at west south-west; and this morning or seamen tooke abundance of mackrell, and about eight of ye clocke wee all had a cleare & comfortable sight of America, and made land againe at an Iland called Menhiggin, an Iland without inhabitants about 39 leagues northward or north-east short of Cape Anne. A little from ye Iland wee saw more northward divers other Ilands called St. George Ilands, and ye maine land of N. E. all along northward and east­ward as wee sayled. This mercy of or God wee had cause more highly to esteeme of, because when wee first because when wee first saw land ys morning, there was a great fog ; and afterward when ye day cleared up wee saw many rockes and Ilands almost on every side of us, as Menhiggin, St. George Ilands, Pemmequid, &c. Yet in ye midst of these dangers or God preserved us, tho: because of ye thicke fog wee could not see farre about us to looke unto or selves. In ye afternoone ye wind continuing still westward agt us wee lay off againe to ye sea southward, and or seamen and many passengers delighted ym selves in tak­ing abundance of mackrell.

    The seventh Sabbath from Milford, & ye 12th

    on ship-board. This day was a fayre, cleare, & comfortable day, tho: the wind was directly agt us; so yt wee were forced to tacke too and againe southward and  northward, gayning little, but were all day still in sight of land. Mr. Maud in ye forenoone ; I in ye afternoone.

    Munday morning ye wind still continuing agt us, wee came to ancre at Richmonds Iland, in ye east part of N. E.; ye bay of Massachusets whither wee were bound lying thirty leagues distant from us to ye west. Or sea­men were willing here to cast ancre, partly because ye wind was agt us, and partly because of necessity they must come to ancre to take in a Pilot somewhere before wee came to ye bay, by reason yt or pilot knew ye harbors no further but to the Ile of shoales. When wee came within sight of ye Iland ye planters* there beeing but two familyes and about 40 persons were sore afraid of us ; doubting lest wee had beene French come to pillage ye Land, as Penobscots had beene served by them about ten days before. When wee were come to ancre, and their feare was past, they came some of ym aboard to us in yr shallops, and wee went some of us ashoare into ye Iland, to looke for fresh water and grasse for or Cattell; and ye planters bade us welcome, and gave some of us

    Reverend Richard Mather's 17 August 10
    us courteous entertaynement in yr houses.

    Tuesday wee lay still at ancre at Richmonds Iland, ye wind being still agt us.

    Wednesday morning, ye wind serving with a fresh gale at north & by east, wee set sayle from Richmonds Iland for Massachusets bay, and went along ye coast by Cape Porpus still within sight of land. This day ye wind was soft and gentle, and as wee went along or seamen and pas­sengers tooke abundance of mackrel. Towards night it became a calme, so that then wee could dispach little way.

    Thursday morning ye wind was agt us at south-south-west, and so had beene all night before ; so yt wee tacked too & fro gayning little ; but continuing on ye coast to­wards Cape Anne, within sight of land for ye most part; passing by Boone Ilands, Agamenticus, &c. This eve­ning our seamen desired to have ancred at Hog Iland, or ye Ile of Shoales, being 7 leagues short of Cape Anne, & 13 or 14 leagues from ye Ile of Richmond ; but ye wind being strong at south-southwest thay could not atteyne yr purpose, and so were forced to lye off againe to sea all night.

    Friday morning ye wind was strong at south-south-west, and so continued till towards evening, and then was some­what milder. This day wee tacked

    too & againe, all day, one while west & by north towards Iles of Shoales, another while east-south-east to sea againe; Cape Anne, whither or way was, lying from us south-south-west directly in ye eye of ye wind, so yt wee could not come neere unto it. But ysevening by moone-light about 10 of ye clocke wee came to ancre at ye Iles of Shoales, which are 7 or 8 Ilands & other great rockes; and there slept sweetely yt night till breake of day.

    But yet ye Lord had not done with us, nor yet had let us see all his power and goodnesse which he would have us to take knowledge of ; and therefore on Saturday morning about breake of day, ye Lord sent forth a most terrible storme of raine and easterly wind, whereby wee were in as much danger as I thinke ever people were : for wee lost in yt morning three great ancres & cables; of wch cables, one having cost 50£ never had beene in any water before, two were broken by ye violence of ye waves, and ye third cut by ye seamen in extremity and distresse, to save ye ship and their & or lives. And wn or cables and an­cres were all lost, wee [had] no outward meanes of deliv­erance but by loosing sayle, if so bee wee might get to ye sea from amongst ye Ilands & rockes where wee ancred: but ye Lord let us see yt orsayles could not save us nei­ther, no more yn or cables & ancres; for by yeforce of ye wind & raine ye sayles were rent in sunder & split in pieces, as if they had beene but rotten ragges

    Richard Mather Journal Page 18

    August 15
    so yt of ye fore-sayle and sprissle-sayle there was scarce left so much as an hand-breadth, yt was not rent in pieces, & blown away into ye sea. So that at ys time all hope yt wee should be saved in regard to any outward appearance was utterly taken away, and yerather because wee seemed to drive with full force of wind & rayne directly upon a mighty rocke standing out in sight above yewater, so yt wee did but continually wayte, when wee should heare and feele ye dolefull rushing and crushing of yeship upon ye rocke. In ys extremity and appearance of death, as distresse & dis­traction would suffer us wee cryed unto ye Lord, and he was pleased to have compassion and pity upon us; for byhand, he guided ye ship past ye rocke, asswaged ye vio­lence of ye sea, and ye wind and raine, & gave us a little respite to fit yeship with other sayles, and sent us a fresh gale of wind at [blank] by wch wee went on yt day in orcourse south-west & by west towards Cape Anne. It was a day much to bee remembered, because on yt day ye Lord granted us as wonderfull a deliverance as I thinke ever people had, out of as apparent danger as I thinke ever people felt. I am sure or seamen confessed they never knew ye like. The Lord so imprint ye memory of it on or hearts, yt wee may bee ye better for it, & bee more carefull to please him and to walke uprightly before him as long as wee live ; and I hope wee shall not forget

    ye pas­sages of yt morning untill or dying day. In ye storme, one Mr. Willet of New Plimouth, and other 3 men with him, having beene turned out of all yr havings at Penobscot about a fourtnight before, and coming along with us in or ship from Richmonds Iland, with his boate and goods in it made fast at ye sterne of or ship, lost his boate with all that was therein, the violence of ye waves breaking ye boate in pieces, and sinking ye bottome of it into ye bottome of ye sea. And Richard Becon lending his helpe to ye seamen at ye haling of a cable, had ye cable catched about his arme, whereby his arme was crushed in pieces, and his right hand pulled away, and himselfe brought into dole-full and grievous paine and misery. But in all ys griev­ous storme, my feare was ye lesse, when I considered ye clearenesse of my calling from God this way, and in some measure (ye Lords holy name be blessed for it) he gave us hearts contented & willing yt hee should do with us and ours what he pleased, and what might bee most for ye glory of his name, & in yt we rested or selves. But when newes was brought unto us into ye gunroome yt ye danger was past, oh how or hearts did then relent & melt within us! And how wee burst out into teares of joy amongst or selves, in love unto or gracious God, and admi­ration of his kindnesse in graunting to his poore servants such an extraordinary and miraculous deliverance. His holy name bee blessed forever.

    This  day wee went on towards Cape Anne, as ye wind would suffer, & our poore sayles further,

    Reverend Richard Mather's 19
    August 16
    and came within sight thereof ye other morning ; which Sabbath, being ye 13 wee kept on ship-board, was a marveylous pleasant day, for a fresh gale of wind, & cleare sunshine weather. This day wee went directly before ye wind, and had
    de­light all along ye coast as wee went, in viewing Cape Anne, ye bay of Saugust, ye bay of Salem, Marvil head, Pullin point, and other places ; and came to ancre at low tide in ye evening at Nantascot, in a most pleasant harbor, like to wch I had never seene, amongst a great many of Ilands on every side. I was excercised on ship-board both ends of ye day. After ye evenings excercise, when it was flowing tide againe, wee set sayle, and came yt night to ancre againe before Boston and so rested yt night with glad & thankefull hearts yt God had put an end to or long journey, being 1000 leagues, yt is 3000 miles English, over one of ye greatest seas in ye world.Now ys or journey, by ye goodnesse of or God, was very prosperous unto us every manner of way. First of all it was very safe, & healthfull to us ; for tho: wee were in ye ship 100 passengers, besides 23 seamen, & 23 cowes and heyfers, 3 sucking calves & eight mares, yet not one of all these dyed by ye way, neither person nor cattell, but came all alive to land, and many of ye Cattell in bet­ter liking yn when wee first entered ye ship; and most of ye passengers in as good health as ever, and none better yn myne owne family, and my weake wife & little Joseph as well as any other. Fevers, calentures, small pockes, & such diseases as have afflicted other passengers ye Lord kept from among us, and put upon us no griefe in or bodyes, but a little sea-sicknesse in ye beginning of ye voy­age ; saving yt 2 or 3 seamen had ye flux, and Rich. Becon lost his right

    hand in ye last storme, and one wo­man and a little child of hers, towards ye end of ye jour­ney, had ye scurvy. The meanes of which infirmity in her wee all conceyved to bee ye want of walking and stirring of her body upon ye decke; her manner beeing to sit much betweene ye deckes upon her bed. And a speciall meanes of ye healthfulnesse of ye passengers by ye blessing of God wee all conceyved to bee much walking in yeopen ayre, and ye comfortable variety of or food; for seeing wee were not tyed to ye ships diet, but did victuall or selves, wee had no want of good and whole-some beere & bread ; and as orland-stomaches grew weary of ship diet, of salt fish and salt beefe and ye like, wee had liberty to change for other food which might sort better with orhealthes and stomaches; and therefore sometimes wee used bacon & buttered pease, sometimes buttered bag-pudding made with curraynes and raisins, and some­times drinke pottage of beere & oate-meale, and sometimes water pottage well buttered.

    And tho: we had two stormes by ye way, ye one upon Munday ye 3d of August, ye other on Saturday ye 15th of ye same, yet or gracious God {blessed and forever bless­ed bee his name) did save us all alive in ym both, & speedily assuaged ym againe. Indeed ye latter of  ym was very terrible and grievous, insomuch yt wn wee came to land wee found many mighty trees rent in pieces in ye midst of ye bole, and others turned up by ye rootes by ye fiercenesse thereof: and a barke going from ye bay to Mar-vil head, with planters & seamen therein to ye number of about 23, was caste away in ye storme, and all ye people therein perished, except one man & his wife, that were spared to report ye newes. And ye Angel Gabriel beeing yn at ancre at Pemmaquid, was burst

    Reverend Richard Mather's 20 August 16
    pieces and cast away in ys storme, & most of ye cattell and other goodes, with one seaman & 3 or 4 passengers did also perish therein, besides two of ye passengers yt dyed by ye way, ye rest having yrlives given ym for a prey. But ye James & wee yt were therein, with or Cattell & goods, were all preserved alive. The Lords name be blessed forever.

    21y. It was very delightfull, while wee tooke pleasure & instruction in beholding ye workes & wonders of ye Almighty in ye deepe; ye sea sometimes beeing rough with mighty mounteynes and deepe valleyes, sometimes againe plaine and smooth like a levell meadow, and some­times painted with variety of yellow weedes : besides it was a pleasant thing to behold ye variety of fowles & mighty fishes swimming and living in ye waters.

    3ly. It was comfortable to us, by meanes of yefellow-ship of divers godly Christians in ye ship, & by meanes of or constant serving God morning & evening every day, ye dayly dutyes beeing performed one day by Mr. Maud, another by myselfe, and ye Sabbath excercises divided (for yemost part) equally betwixt us two.

    True it is or journey was somewhat long ; for tho: from Munday ye 22d of June, wn wee lost sight of our ould English coast, untill Saturday ye 8th of August wn wee made land againe at Menhiggin, it was but six weekes & 5 dayes, yet from or first entering ye ship in King roade, on Saturday ye 23 of May, till orlanding at Boston in N. E. on Munday ye 17th of August, it was 12 weekes & 2 dayes. For wee lay at ancre in King roade 11 dayes before wee ever set sayle, & 3 dayes at Lundy & 12 dayes at Milford, and spent 3 dayes in tacking betweene King roade & Lundy, one day between Lundy & Milford, & 8 dayes betweene Menhiggin & Boston. Neverthelesse or God preserved us all ye while, and wee had op­portunity by these often delayes to take in more haye, oates & frech water, and arrived in a good condition, Agayne let our gracious God be blessed forever. Amen.

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