These cousins are all descendants of the parents, a set of grandparents, great-grandparents, or great-great-grandparents, or of several immigrant ancestral cousins, of Robert Porteus, Jr. (ca. 1705-1754), Virginia-born rector of Cockayne Hatley, Bedfordshire, 1730 graduate of Peterhouse College, Cambridge, and older half-brother of Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London. The Queen Mother’s Porteus descent is as follows: Rev. Robert Porteus, Jr., & Judith Cockayne (1702-1789); Mildred Porteus (b. 1744) & Robert Hodgson (1740-1816); Rev. Robert Hodgson, Dean of Carlisle (ca. 1766-1844), & Mary Tucker (b. ca. 1778); Henrietta Mildred Hodgson & Oswald Smith (1794-1863); Frances Dora Smith (1832-1922) & Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (1824-1904); Claude George Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (1855-1944) & Nina Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck (1862-1938); Lady Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon, now H.M. Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (b. 1900), wife of King George VI.
Robert Portetis, Sr. (ca. 1679-1758), sometime of Newbottle, Gloucester County, Virgina, later of York and Ripon, England, father of the Bedfordshire rector, was the son of Edward Porteus of Petsoe, Gloucester County (whose will was dated 23 February 1693/4, and proved 24 October 1700), a likely immigrant, by an unknown wife. The colonial ancestry of (1) Mildred Smith (b. 1682) of Purton, Gloucester County, first wife of Robert Porteus, Sr., and mother of the Bedford-shire rector, can be briefly outlined as follows. She was the daughter of (2) John Smith, Jr. (ca. 1662-1698) of Purton & (3) Mary Warner (d. 1700); granddaughter of (4) John Smith of Purton (living 1676) & (5) Anna Bernard, and of (6) Augustine Warner, Jr. (1643-1681) of Warner Hall (also in Gloucester County) & (7) Mildred Reade (d. ca. 1694); great-granddaughter of (8) Thomas Smith (about whom no information beyond his name is readily available from the sources cited below), a likely immigrant, & (9) ____ an unknown wife, of (10) Richard Bernard (ca. 1608-ante 1652) of Petsoe, Buckinghamshire, England, and Purton, & (11) Anna Cordray (ca. 1 1608-ca. 1670), originally of Chute, Wiltshire, of (12) Augustine Warner (1611-1674) of Norwich, England, and Warner Hall & (13) Mary Towneley (1614-1662), originally of Stone Edge, Lancashire, and of (14) George Reade (1608-1670/1) of 1 Linkenholt, Hampshire, England, and York 1 County, Secretary and Acting Governor of Virginia, & (15) Elizabeth Martiau (ca. 1625-1686); and great-great-granddaughter of (30) Nicholas Martiau (ca. 1591-ca. 1657), French Huguenot settler of Elizabeth City, Charles City, and York Counties, Virginia, & (31) Mrs. Jane (___) Berkeley. Richard Bernard, his wife Anna Cordray, Mrs. Mary Towneley Warner, and George Reade were all Tidewater immigrants of royal descent. Richard Bernard was a double first cousin, moreover, of the immigrant William Bernard (ca. 1598-1665) of Nansemond and Isle of Wight Counties, Virginia; Mrs. Anna Cordray Bernard was an aunt of Francis and William Ironmonger, immigrant brothers of Gloucester County; and Mrs. Mary Towneley Warner was an aunt of the immigrants Lawrence Towneley (b. 1639/40, also her son-in-law) and (almost certainly) Lawrence Smith (1629-ca. 1700, of York and Gloucester Counties).
Scholarship concerning The Queen Mother’s Virginia ancestry began with a brilliant initial article by Sir Anthony Richard Wagner, “The Queen of England’s American Ancestry and Cousinship to Washington and Lee,” which first appeared in the July 1939 issue (pp. 201-6) of The New York  Genealogical and Biographical Record- in honor of the royal visit to the 1939 World’s Fair in New York City-and was reprinted with a slightly different title in Genealogists’ Magazine 8 (1939): 368-75. Gerald Paget abstracted the Queen Mother’s Porteus descent, and her Warner, Reade, Towneley, and Martiau ancestry (the Towneleys among “Addenda and Corrigenda”) in volume two of his mammoth compendium. The Lineage and Ancestry of H. R. H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (1977). I noted the Smith of Purton, Bernard, and Cordray extensions of this ancestry in The Genealogist (New York) 1(1980): 113, 124; 2 (1981): 249, 255. In addition, for Reades, Martiaus, Warners, and Towneleys see York Lowry Wilson, A Carolina-Virginia Genealogy (1962), pp. 253-335 (Reade), the forthcoming third edition of Adventurers of Purse and Person, edited by John Frederick Dorman (Martiau), and two articles by Mary B. D. McCurdy, “A Discovery Concerning the Towneley and Warner Families of Virginia” and “The Towneleys and Warners of Virginia and Their English Connections” in Genealogies of Virginia Families From The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 5 (1981), pp. 538-90. For Lawrence Smith see Mrs. J. B. Boddie, Historical Southern Families, vol. 17 (1972), pp. 183-96, and David A. Avant, Jr., Florida Pioneers and Their Alabama, Georgia, Carolina, Maryland and Virginia Ancestors (1974), pp. 316-25. Major Porteus, Smith of Purton, Bernard, and Cordray sources include Lothrop Withington, Virginia Gleanings in England (1980), pp. 142-44 (Porteus), 414-15 (Cordray); Louise Pecquet du Bellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families, vol. 3 (1907, reprint 1976), pp. 1-7, and Genealogies of Virginia Families From The William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine (1982), vol. 1, pp. 327-36, vol. 4, pp. 455-82, 527-28 (Smith, Bernard); and Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, 5th ser., 7 (1929-1931): 304-6, Sophia F. Higgins, The Bernards of Abington and Nether Winchendon, 4 vols. (1903-4), and F.L. Weis, Arthur Adams, and W.L. Sheppard, Jr., The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, third ed. (1979), line 46 (Bernard).
In Chapter Four of American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales, a sketch of the Virginia ancestry of Prince William of Wales, I included a shortened ancestor table for Robert Porteus, Jr., a briefer description of the above sources, and a list of 50 notable figures descended from ancestors or immigrant American kinsmen of Porteus, The Queen Mother, The Queen, The Prince of Wales, and Prince William. In the list of 50 notable “royal cousins” I indicated the common forebear or kinsman but did not outline the descent. The major purpose of this column is to delineate and document these “royal connections” (and, in each case, a royal descent also) for the 15 best known of these 50. I also want to comment somewhat further on The Queen Mother’s Virginia ancestors as a group, on the historical contribution of the 15 figures treated below, and on the likely number of the royal family’s American cousins, via Porteus, in tom.
Except for Nicholas Martiau, The Queen Mother’s immigrant ancestors and kinsmen - Edward Porteus, Thomas Smith, Richard Bernard, Augustine Warner, George Reade, William Bernard, Francis Ironmonger, William Ironmonger, Lawrence Towneley, and Lawrence Smith were all post-Jamestown Virginia planters, “cavalier” founders of the Tidewater plantation aristocracy. They immigrated largely in the 1630s, 40s, or 50s, and were readily absorbed into the ruling oligarchy of other second or third generation Virginia immigrants - notably Randolphs, Carters, and Lees. The two Augustine Warners were both burgesses and members of the Governor’s Council; Augustine Warner, Jr., was Speaker of the House of Burgesses in 1676; George Reade was a burgess, councillor, Secretary of the Colony and Acting Governor, 1638-39; Martiau was a burgess and father-in-law of Governor William Fuller of Maryland; William Bernard was a councillor; and several of these “royal ancestors,” immigrants, or kinsmen held and are usually known by military titles.
Descendants of the Tidewater plantation aristocracy have figured prominently in America politics (especially during the Revolution an under “Virginia-dynasty” presidents), the military (notably in the Revolution, the Confederacy, and both world wars) and exploration. Among the following 15 “royal cousins” are a president (Washington), a signer of the Declaration of Independence (Nelson), two Confederate generals (Lee and Johnston), two World War II commanders (Marshall and Patton), three major explorers (Lewis, Fremont, and R.E. Byrd), plus mid-l9th-century statesman (Benton) and two recent ones (H. F. Byrd and Stevenson). Two 20th century northern cultural leaders (composer Berlin and historian Morison) and the humanitarian Helen Keller complete the list. Note the lack of any southern literary figures, or of any industrial tycoons.
Reade’s progeny is part of Martiau’s, and Lawrence Towneley’s is part of Augustine Warner’s. Thomas Smith has known descendants only through his son, John Smith of Purton, son in-law of Richard Bernard, and Edward Porteus probably left descendants only through his son, Robert Porteus, who returned to England. Thus known American kinsmen of The Queen Mother through Robert Porteus, Jr., are descendants of Richard or William Bernard, Francis or William Ironmonger, Augustine Warner, Lawrence Smith or Nicholas Martiau. Assuming three children and 30 years per generation, considerable overlap and  cousin intermarriage, and 13 generations of descendants, three now living, for the two Bernards, Warner, and Martiau - but only 12 for the two Ironmongers and Smith - I should now estimate the total number of living Americans who share Virginia ancestors (or parents or grandparents of Virginia ancestors) with Porteus and The Queen Mother, at between one and five million. Arguments for the lower figure, at least as regards potential provable kinsmen, are both (1) the genealogical insularity of the Tidewater gentry (i.e., very frequent cousin intermarriage) and (2) the greater difficulty, relative to New England research, of documenting southern lineages generally. Nonetheless probably a significant percentage of Tidewater planter-derived Americans, and many NEXUS readers, can claim the present British royal family as cousins.
The 15 figures listed below are my selection of the best-known Tidewater-derived “royal cousins,” or spouses of such, traced to date. As per previous columns, the figure’s full name, birth and death years, and brief achievement description are followed by the descent, generation by generation and backward in time, to the couple ancestral to Porteus and The Queen Mother (indicated by their numbers in the ancestry of Mrs. Mildred Smith Porteus), to William Bernard, to Lawrence Towneley, or to Lawrence Smith. All such lines are included, semi-colons separate generations and commas individual couples, and the descents of spouses are placed in parentheses. In selecting the following 15 from the larger group of 50 listed in American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales- a shortening required by space - I omitted the progeny of Clement Read, supposed and likely but unproved grandson of George Reade, but included that of Francis Smith, almost certainly a son of William and grandson of Lawrence. The 15 “royal cousins”:
1. THOMAS HART BENTON, 1782-1858, statesman, U.S. Senator from Missouri (wife, Elizabeth Preston McDowell; James McDowell, Jr., & Sarah Preston; William Preston & Susanna Smith; Francis Smith & Elizabeth Waddy; [probably] William Smith & Elizabeth Ballard; Lawrence Smith & Mary Hitchen).
2. IRVING BERLIN, (born Israel Baline), b. 1888, composer (second wife, Ellin Travers Mackay; Clarence Hungerford Mackay & Katherine Alexander Duet; William Alexander Duet & Ellin North Moale Travers; William Riggin Travers & Maria Louise Johnson; John Travers, Jr., & Susan Rebecca Hanson Moale; Samuel Moale & Anne M. Howard; John Moale, Jr., & Ellin North; Robert North & Frances Todd; Thomas Todd, Jr., & Elizabeth Bernard; William Bernard & Lucy Higginson).
3-4. HARRY FLOOD BYRD, 1887-1966, newspaper publisher, U.S. Senator and Governor of Virginia, & RICHARD EVELYN BYRD (JR.), 1888-1957, naval officer and explorer, discoverer of the South Pole, brothers; Richard Evelyn Byrd & Eleanor Boiling Flood; Joel Walker Flood & Ella Faulkner; Henry De La Warr Flood & Mary Elizabeth Trent; Joel Walker Flood & Elizabeth Boiling West; Thomas West & Elizabeth Blair Boiling; John West & Elizabeth Seaton; George Seaton & Elizabeth Hill; Henry Seaton & Elizabeth Todd; Thomas Todd Jr., & Elizabeth Bernard; William Bernard & Lucy Higginson.
5. JOHN CHARLES FREMONT, 1813-1890, explorer and soldier, U.S. Senator from California, Republican presidential candidate in 1856 (wife, Jessie Ann Benton; Thomas Hart Benton, #1 above, & Elizabeth Preston McDowell).
6. ALBERT SIDNEY JOHNSTON, 1803-1862 Confederate general, Secretary of War of the Republic of Texas (first wife, Henrietta Preston; William Preston & Caroline Hancock; William Preston & Susanna Smith, grandparents of Mrs. Thomas Hart Benton, see #1 above).
7. HELEN (ADAMS) KELLER, 1880-1968; humanitarian, benefactor of the blind and deaf; Arthur H. Keller & Kate Adams; David Keller & Mary Fairfax Moore; Alexander Spotswood Moore & Elizabeth Aylett; Bernard Moore & Anne Catherine Spotswood; Augustine Moore (a second husband) & Elizabeth Todd; Thomas Todd, Jr., & Elizabeth Bernard; William Bernard & Lucy Higginson.
8. ROBERT EDWARD LEE, 1807-1870, the Confederate commander; Henry “Light Horse Harry” Lee (III) & Anne Hill Carter; Henry Lee, Jr., & Lucy Grymes, Charles Carter & Anne Butler Moore; Charles Grymes & Frances Jennings, Bernard Moore & Anne Catherine Spotswood; John Grymes & Alice Towneley, Augustine Moore & Elizabeth Todd; Lawrence Towneley & Sarah Warner, Thomas Todd, Jr., & Elizabeth Bernard; 12-13, William Bernard & Lucy Higginson.
9. MERIWETHER LEWIS, 1774-1809, explorer and soldier, commander of the Lewis & Clark expedition; William Lewis & Lucy Meriwether; Robert. Lewis & Jane Meriwether, Thomas Meriwether & Elizabeth Thornton; John Lewis, Jr., & Elizabeth Warner, Francis Thornton, Jr., & Mary Taliaferro; 6-7, John Taliaferro & Sarah Smith; Lawrence Smith & Mary Hitchen.
10. GEORGE CATLETT MARSHALL, JR., 1880-1959, World War II army commander (U.S. Chief of Staff), U.S. Secretary of State and Defense, author of the “Marshall Plan,” recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953; George Catlett Marshall & Laura Bradford; William Champe Marshall & Susan Myers; Martin Marshall & Matilda Battaile Taliaferro; Nicholas Taliaferro & Ann Champe Taliaferro; William Taliaferro & Mary Battaile (parents of Nicholas); John Taliaferro, Jr., & Mary Catlett, Nicholas Battaile & Mary Thornton; John Taliaferro & Sarah Smith (parents of John, Jr., & Mary), John Battaile & Elizabeth Smith, Francis Thornton, Jr., & Mary Taiiaferro; Lawrence Smith & Mary Hitchen (parents of Sarah & Elizabeth).
11. SAMUEL ELIOT MORISON, 1887-1976, historian (second wife, Agnes Priscilla Randolph Barton; Randolph Barton, Jr., & Eleanor Addison Morison; Randolph Barton & Agnes Priscilla Kirkland; David Walker Barton & Fanny L. A. M. Jones; William Strother Jones, Jr., & Anna Maria Marshall; William Strother Jones & Frances Thornton; Frances Thornton IV & Ann Thompson; Francis Thornton III & Frances Gregory; Francis Thornton, Jr., & Mary Taliaferro, Roger Gregory  & Mildred Washington; John Taliaferro & Sarah Smith, Lawrence Washington & Mildred Warner; Lawrence Smith & Mary Hitchen, 6-7).
12. THOMAS NELSON, 1738-1789, signer of the Declaration of Independence, Governor of Virginia; William Nelson & Elizabeth Burwell; Thomas Nelson & Margaret Reade; Robert Reade & Mary Lilly; 14-15.
13. GEORGE SMITH PATTON (III), 1885-1945, World War II army commander; George Smith Patton, Jr., & Ruth Wilson; George Smith Patton & Susan Thornton Glassell; John Mercer Patton & Margaret French Williams, Andrew Glassell, Jr., & Susanna Thompson Thornton; Isaac Hite Williams & Lucy Coleman Slaughter, William Thornton, Jr., & Eleanor Thompson; Philip Slaughter & Margaret French Strother, William Thornton & Mary Stuart, Philip Rootes Thompson & Anna Davenport; James Slaughter & Susan Clayton, Francis Thornton III & Frances Gregory (ancestors of Mrs. Samuel Eliot Morison, see #11 above), John Thompson & Elizabeth Rootes; Robert Slaughter, Jr., & Mary Smith, Philip Rootes & Mildred Reade; Augustine Smith & Mary ___, Thomas Reade & Lucy Gwyne; Lawrence Smith & Mary Hitchen, 14-15, Edward Gwyne & Lucy Bernard; William Bernard & Lucy Higginson.
14. ADLAI EWING STEVENSON II, 1900-1965, Governor of Illinois, Democratic presidential candidate in 1952 and 1956, Ambassador to the United Nations; Lewis Green Stevenson & Helen Louise Davis; U.S. Vice President Adlai Ewing Stevenson & Letitia Green; Lewis Warner Green & Mary Peachy Fry; Thomas Walker Fry & Elizabeth Smith; Joshua Fry II & Peachy Walker; Thomas Walker & Mildred Thornton; Francis Thornton, Jr., & Mary Taliaferro; John Taliaferro & Sarah Smith; Lawrence Smith & Mary Hitchen.
15. GEORGE WASHINGTON, 1732-1799, American revolutionary commander, first U.S. President, the “Father of His Country”; Augustine Washington & Mary Ball; Lawrence Washington & Mildred Warner; 6-7.
Sources: In addition to the books and articles listed above, which cover The Queen Mother’s Virginia ancestry and immigrant kinsmen, the following works delineate and document the above descents:
1,5,6. Mrs. Benton, Mrs. Fremont, and Mrs. Johnston: Clayton Torrence, ed., The Edward Valentine Pleasants Papers, vol. 4 (1927, reprint 1979), pp. 2317-23 (Smith); J.F. Dorman, The Prestons of Smithfield and Greenfield in Virginia (1982), pp. 12-22, 56-61, 223-26, 233-36.
2. Mrs. Berlin: “The Pedigree of Katherine Alexander Duer Blake (Mrs. Joseph Blake)” [Mrs. Berlin’s mother] - oversize G BLA 7106 in the Society’s library, confirmed by Clayton Torrence, Winston of Virginia and Allied Families (1927), pp. 115-18, 92 (& chart opposite)-98 (Bernard, Todd); Genealogies of Virginia Families From The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (henceforth GVFVM), vol. 3 (1981), pp. 284-88, 351-54, 356-59 (Todd, North, Moale); Robert Barnes, Marriages and Deaths From Baltimore Newspapers, 1796-1816 (1978), p. 325 (marriage of John Travers & Susan Rebecca Moale); the Register 84(1930): 333-34, and the NYG&B Record 62 (1931): 156-57 (obituary notices of Mrs. Blake).
3,4. The Byrds: Bernard & Todd as above (under #2); GVFVM 3: 284-88, 341-43 (Todd, Seaton, West); A.W. Fox & M. McN. Ayers, The Noble Lineage of the Delaware - West Family of Virginia (1958), see chart opposite page 198.
7. Keller: Bernard & Todd as above (under #2): GVFVM 3: 284-88, 341-50 (Todd, Moore); American Historical Society, Inc., History of Alabama and Her People, vol. 2 (1927), pp. 404-5. See also Miss Keller’s autobiography, The Story of My Life (1903).
8. Lee: The articles by Sir A. R. Wagner cited above; GVFVM 3: 284-88, 341-49. See also the several Lee, Carter, and Randolph genealogies.
9. Lewis: M. E. Sorley, Lewis of Warner HaIl (1935, reprint 1979), pp. 31-65, 523-34, 691-92, 698-99; D. A. Avant, Jr., Florida Pioneers (1974), pp. 330-31 (Taliaferro); Genealogies of Virginia Families From The William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine (henceforth GVFWM), vol. 5 (1982): 64, 22-25 (Thornton); Sarah T. L. S. Anderson, Lewises, Meriwethers, and Their Kin (1938, reprint 1984), pp. 221, 150 (Thornton, Meriwether).
10. Marshall: GVFWM 4: 729-53 (Smith, Taliaferro, Battaile, Thornton), corrected as to the “Dissington” Taliaferros in Genealogies of Virginia Familes From Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine (henceforth GVFT), vol. 3 (1981), pp. 501-2, 507, 541-43, and by Nell W. Sherman, Taliaferro-Toliver Family Records (1961), pp. 10-11, 15, 33-34, 36-37, 39; GVFVM 1: 35-41, 49-50 (Battaile); W. M. Paxton, The Marshall Family (1885), pp. 83-84, 186, 302; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, vol. 45 (1962), pp. 1-10.
11. Mrs. Morison: GVFWM 5: 64, 22-26, 33 (Thornton); GVFVM 1: 622 and GVFT 3: 379, 440 (Jones); W. M. Paxton, op. cit. pp. 145, 256-57, 355-56 (Jones, Barton); George Abbot Morison, Nathaniel Morison and His Descendants (1951), pp. 143-45; Virginia Magazine of History and Riography 56 (1948): 42-56 (Warner, Washington, Gregory, Thornton).
12. Nelson: John Bennett Boddie II, Historical Southern Families, vol. 2 (1958), pp. 185-88 (Reade); R.C.M. Page, Genealogy of the Page Family of Virginia, 2nd ed. (1893), pp. 155-59, 160-72 (Nelson).
13. Patton: GVFWM 4: 499-501 (Smith); L.P. duBellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families (1907, reprint 1976), vol. 4, pp. 400, 402, 404, 420-21, 427-28 (Slaughter, Williams, Patton) and The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, vol. 37 (1951), pp. 18-20; Warner-Washington-Gregory-Thornton as above (under #11), GVFWM 5: 64, 22-26, 34, 49 (Thornton), and Horace Edwin Hayden, Virginia Genealogies (1891, reprint 1959), pp. 14-15, 32-35 (Glassell, Patton); William Clayton-Torrence, Rootes of Rosewall, nd., pp. 1-27, 30, 33-34, 43-44, 55 (Reade, Bernard, Gwyne, Rootes, Thompson).
14. Stevenson: Smith, Taliaferro, and Thornton as above (under #9, 10, 11, & 13); Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 43 (1935): 251-56 (Thornton, Walker); William D. Ligon, Jr., The Ligon Family and Connections, vol. 2(1957), pp. 11-18.
15. Washington: Burke’s Presidential Families of the United States of America, 2nd ed. (1981), Appendix C, ancestral chart for the first president; The American Genealogist (TAG) 51(1975): 167-68, 54(1978): 215-16; and Burke’s Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, 1939 ed. (reprinted as Prominent Families in America with British Ancestry ), pp. 2961-63.
For the royal descents of George Reade, William Bernard, Richard Bernard, Mrs. Anna Cordray Bernard, Francis Ironmonger, William Ironmonger, Mrs. Mary Towneley Warner, Lawrence Towneley, and Lawrence Smith, see the following above-cited sources, plus additional references mentioned therein: (1) The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, 3rd ed., lines 46 and 8 (William Bernard, Reade); (2) Miscellaneca  Genealogica et Heraldica, 5th set., 7:304 (Richard Bernard); (3) The Genealogist 1:113, 124, 2:249. 255 (Mrs. A. C. Bernard, the Ironmongers); and (4) TAG 54:215-16 (Mrs. M. T. Warner, Towneley, Smith). Among other British decendants of Robert Porteus, Jr., Peter Alexander Rupert Carrington, 6th Baron Carrington (born 1919), :Leader of the House of Lords and from 1979 to 1982 British Foreign Secretary, is a great-great-grandson of Oswald Smith and Henrietta Mildred Hodgson and a third cousin of H. M. the Queen. See Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, 18th ed., vol. 1 (1965), p. 642, vol 3 (1972), p. 871 and Colville and Carrington entries in any recent Burke's (or Debrett's) Peerage.