An even larger “family” consists of the progeny of late Plantagenet, Capetian (of France) and Hohenstaufen (of Germany) kings, which in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries became in large part a Renaissance courtly nobility in each of the newly solidifying European nations. Over the next 300 years these courtiers transformed themselves into, among other groups, a “robe and sword” nobility in France, Spanish conquistadors and viceroys, papal and other Italian rulers, Prussian Junkers, an Austrian princely diplomatic corps and bureaucracy, a Russian princely intelligentsia, and colonial American governors, ministers, planters and merchants (plus their nineteenth-century pioneer, tycoon, Brahmin and “400” descendants). To this last enormous kindred belong such figures and families as Lafayette and Talleyrand in France; Mendoza and Guzmán in Spain; Colonna, Orsini, Medici and Farnese in Italy; Bismarck and Krupp in Germany; Schwarzenberg and Esterházy in Austria and Hungary; and Tolstoy, Pushkin and Turgenev in Russia; plus, of course, Cecil and Cavendish in England and Dudley, Bulkeley, Livingston, Randolph, Logan and Cadwalader in America. In evoking these two larger “families” and documenting some of these surprising connections I shall depend heavily on both my own earlier research, mostly for “The Mowbray Connection,” and the superb and massive new British (especially Scottish) and continental collections given to us by John H. Cook, the late John Insley Coddington, and C. Frederick Kaufholz.
I wish to begin this series, and an exploration of the Anglo-American gentry-derived “family,” by outlining two royal descents that may indeed surprise many readers. Perhaps equally surprising at first will be the delineation also of the nearest readily traceable New England cousins of these figures. Yet the nineteenth-century British “intellectual aristocracy,” first defined by Noel Annan in J.H. Plumb, ed., Studies in Social History (1955), was often descended from gentle, noble and royal families. And virtually anyone with such ancestry, including most of the modern peerage, gentry and British “establishment,” will descend from first, second or third cousins of various early immigrants to New England. Nonetheless, descent from a late Plantagenet (an aunt, in fact, of Kings Edward IV and Richard III), from an aunt also of Queen Elizabeth I, and from the third wife and sister respectively of Elizabethan favorites Leicester and Essex - such ancestry for the naturalist Charles Robert Darwin is startling.
Startling, too, is the realization that Karl Marx, author of “A Communist Manifesto” and descendant of the famed Katzcnellenbogen rabbinical family also ancestral to Mendelssohn, Helena Rubinstein and David Halberslam, married the daughter of a Junker baron. The mother of that Junker baron, moreover, was a Scottish Wishart whose own mother was the heiress of the Campbells of Orchard and great-granddaughter of six Campbells - of Ardkinglass, Glenurchy, Ardentinny, Kinochtree, Lochnell, and Auchinbreck. Anne Campbell of Orchard was also the great-great-granddaughter of two baronets, including Sir Robert Campbell, 3rd Bt. of Glenurchy, grandfather of the 1st earl of Breadalbane. Sir Robert, great-grandson himself of an illegitimate daughter of James IV, King of Scots, married Isabel Mackintosh, a descendant of Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots, and Edward III of England. A great-nephew of Isabel, Col. Henry Mackintosh or McIntosh, immigrated to Boston and Bristol, Rhode Island. His daughter Elizabeth married her immigrant cousin, Lachlan Mackintosh (or McIntosh), a great-nephew of Henry, and their daughter Elizabeth married the loyalist Isaac Royall, Jr., of Medford, Mass., whose home is now a national landmark and major tourist attraction. Isaac and his wife later  fled to Halifax, their daughter Elizabeth Royall married Sir William Pepperell (formerly Sparhawk), 1st Bt., grandson of the hero of Louisburg, and among their British great-grandsons was the antiquarian Edward Walford. Descendants of Karl and Jenny Marx, all through their daughter Jenny Caroline and her French husband Charles Longuet, include grandson Jean Longuet (1876-1938), a colleague and friend of Leon Blum, and great-grandsons Karl (b. 1904) and Paul Jean Longuet (b. 1909), noted sculptor and agriculturalist respectively. One pattern in Mrs. Marx’s ancestry may be repeated in other “surprising connections” in this series. It is the frequent descent of nineteenth- and twentieth-century continental figures from Irish or Scottish fore-bears - sometimes Jacobites, sometimes refugees, often “soldiers of fortune” - of the preceding two centuries.
Despite twentieth-century revisions and corrections to the theory of evolution, and despite the recent dismantling of many communist governments, parties or structures. the importance of Darwin and Marx as seminal figures in modern history can scarcely be exaggerated. Christianity and religious thought generally had to take account of evolution; social Darwinism or “the survival of the fittest” among men, ideas and institutions influenced much later economic theory (perhaps even to supply-side “Reaganomics”); and some Marxist theory lies behind both the “democratic socialism” of post-World War II Europe and various labor movements since probably the 1870s. Even most short lists of “men who changed the world” would include Darwin and Marx - and among late nineteenth-century thinkers only Einstein and Freud might be rated so influential. But although the royal descent and closest New England connections of Jenny Marx can be summarized fairly briefly, as above, and are amplified in the outline below, the noble ancestry and distant American kin of Darwin require longer treatment.
Charles Robert Darwin’s royal, noble and gentle ancestry was fully outlined as early as 1908, in the Isabel of Essex volume of Ruvigny’s The Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal, fully cited below. A centerpiece of Noel Annan’s “intellectual aristocracy,” Darwin was the grand-son of physician and poet Erasmus Darwin, who founded the Philosophical Society at Derby in 1784, and of Josiah Wedgwood, the potter, of Etruria. The latter married Sarah Wedgwood, his third cousin; both were of rather remote gentry ancestry through the Bowyer, Burslem, Ford and Brereton families. However, Erasmus Darwin’s first wife, grandmother of the naturalist, was Mary Howard of Lichfield, granddaughter of Paul Foley, M.P., a first cousin of Thomas Foley, 1st Baron Foley of Kidderminster, and of his sister Elizabeth, wife of Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford, British minister under Queen Anne, and ancestress of H.M. Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother. Paul Foley was a grandson maternally of the 6th baron Paget, ancestor of the marquesses of Anglesey. Thus from a daughter of an older peerage clan springs a gentry family (another branch of which is ennobled) from whose daughter’s daughter descends a distinguished group of “intellectual aristocrats.” Darwin himself married a first cousin, Emma Wedgwood, whose brother; Josiah Wedgwood (III), married Darwin’s sister, Caroline Sarah. Margaret Susan Wedgwood, a daughter of these last, married Arthur Charles Vaughan Williams, and was the mother of Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), the composer. One of Darwin’s first cousins of the half blood, moreover, was Sir Francis Gallon, the founder of eugenics, son of Samuel Tertius Gallon (whose mother was a Quaker Barclay of royal descent) and Frances Anne Violetta Darwin, daughter of Erasmus Darwin and his second wife, Elizabeth Collier.
Through Darwin’s mother-in-law, Elizabeth Allen wife of Josiah Wedgwood, Jr., there is, in addition, a pivotal link between this major intellectual clan and perhaps the leading politically active family of the Tory, later Conservative, aristocracy. Antoinette Caroline Allen, a sister of Mrs. Wedgwood, married Rev. Edward Drewe; their daughter, Georgiana Catherine Drewe, married Sir Edward Hall Alderson and one of her daughters, Georgiana Alderson, in 1857 married Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, British prime minister, 1885-92, 1895-1900, and 1900-2. This marriage can almost be said to begin the genealogical formation of the British “establishment” - the merging of the older peerage, country gentry, “intellectual aristocracy” and industrial tycoons into families that fill cabinet, county, bureaucratic, university, learned society, corporate and trustee positions almost inter-changeably. The American equivalent of this “establishment” is the “Social Register” elite, an amalgam of Boston-Salem mercantile families; Harvard and Yale, later Ivy League intellectuals (especially important in the “flowering of New England” and the Unitarian, abolition, feminist, peace, and civil-rights movements); New York, Midwestern and other “tycoon” families; and Mrs. Astor’s “400,” later Newport “society.” This consolidation, like its British counterpart, also produced many twentieth-century leaders.
Turning now to Darwin’s American kin, we can note firstly that among his italicized ancestors listed below, --Sir Francis Knollys and Catherine Cary were maternal grandparents of Thomas West, 3rd Baron Delaware (de la Warr), Hon. Francis West and Hon. John West, all governors of Virginia (of whom John left a large progeny); matrilineal great-grandparents of Harvard College treasurer Herbert Pelham and his sister Penelope wife of Massachusetts governor Richard Bellingham and matrilineal great-great-grandparents of Mrs. Anne Humphrey Palmes Myles of Swansea, Mass., identified in NEXUS 4(1987):69-73, as an ancestor of John D. and William Rockefeller. Darwin ancestors Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich, and Elizabeth Jenkes were matrilineal great-great-grandparents of Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, proprietary governor of Maryland, and Hon. Leonard Calvert, colonial governor of Maryland (via Wroth, Wynne, and Calvert); and of Sir William Lovelace of Woolrich, Kent (via Wroth, Aucher, and  Lovelace), whose children include New York colonial governor Francis Lovelace and Mrs. Anne Lovelace Gorsuch of Maryland. An illegitimate son of the 1st baron Rich was the maternal grandfather of Nathaniel Browne of Middletown, Connecticut, and another great-great-great-grandson of the 1st baron was Maj. Robert Peyton of Virginia.
Edward Cope and Elizabeth Mohun were matrilineal great-grandparents of William Goddard of Watertown, Mass., and Edward’s uncle, Sir John Cope of Canons Ashby, Northamptonshire, whose progeny includes the poet John Dryden, the satirist Jonathan Swift, the gossip and collector Horace Walpole, and Elizabeth Boyle, wife of the poet Edmund Spenser, was also the matrilineal great-grandfather of the famed Mrs. Anne Marbury Hutchinson, religious liberal and a founder of Rhode Island, and of her sister, Mrs. Catherine Marbury Scott of Providence. New England descendants of earlier Cope ancestors include William Pynchon, founder of Springfield, Massachusetts, a great-grandson of Tudor minister Sir Richard Empson and third cousin of Edward Cope, and fur trader John Nelson of Boston, a Spencer and Empson descendant. Among Virginia immigrants distantly related to Copes was Spencer descendant John Washington of Westmoreland County, great-grandfather of the president. Roger Giffard and Mary Nanseglos were great-great-grandparents of Rev. William Sargent of Malden, Mass.; and Roger’s niece, Amy Giffard, wife of Richard Samwell, was a great-great-grandmother of Mrs. Alice Freeman Thompson Parke of Roxbury, Mass. and Stonington, Conn., an ancestress of The Princess of Wales and her sons. Finally among Darwin ancestors italicized below, Richard Cave and Margaret Saxby were great-great-grandparents of Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke of Rhode Island and ancestors also, among Virginia immigrants, of Sir Grey Skipwith, 3rd Bt., and his sister, Mrs. Diana Skipwith Dale, and of Henry and William Randolph, the latter probably the major ur-father of the Tidewater plantation aristocracy. Presidential descendants of these immigrant cousins of Darwin, besides Washington, include Jefferson, a great-grandson of William Randolph; Coolidge, a descendant of Goddard; F.D. Roosevelt, a descendant of Mrs. Hutchinson and Nelson; and Bush, also a descendant of Mrs. Hutchinson (Mrs. Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, I might add, was descended from Gov. [Hon.] John West of Virginia). Tycoon connections, in addition to Rockefellers, include Joseph Wharton, via both Mrs. Katherine Marbury Scott and Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke (see NEXUS 4:69-73); Mrs. Alexis Irenée DuPont, Jr., via Mrs. Anne Marbury Hutchinson; Mrs. Harvey Samuel Firestone, Jr., Mrs. William Clay Ford, and Mrs. Cyrus Hall McCormick, via Mrs. Alice Freeman Thompson Parke (NEXUS 4:159-62); “Hetty” Green, also via both Mrs. Scott and Act. Gov. Clarke; Mrs. William Averell Harriman, via Mrs. Hutchinson; Mrs. Russell Sage and Henry Clay Folger, Jr., both via Mrs. Scott; Mrs. Paul Mellon, via Mrs. Parke; and Mrs. Edward Stephen Harkness, Jr., via Act. Gov. Clarke (NEXUS 4:192-95).
Outlined below, then, generation by generation, from king to notable figure, with standard abbreviations, no places, dates in years only, but full documentation, are the “best” royal descents - those from the most recent king - for Charles Darwin and Mrs. Karl Marx. Also noted are Darwin’s descents from italicized ancestors of American immigrants. The second line for Mrs. Marx, who has various descents from Edward III of England and James I or II and Robert I, II, or III of Scots, covers her Mackintosh (McIntosh)-Royall-Pepperell New England cousins but includes only a single death date for the first eight generations. One final note, I think, is appropriate. When I first developed this royal descent for Mrs. Marx about ten years ago I corresponded with Andrew B.W. MacEwen, who added much of interest from his own superb Scottish library, and the late John Insley Coddington, for whose obituary and a notice of the memorial service at NEHGS see the Register 145(1991):195-200 and NEXUS 8:93. John was delighted and much amused by the prospect of “A Marxist Royal Descent” (and other possible article titles he devised) and encouraged further work. This initial result is somewhat more serious than he first envisioned, but I hope he would have liked it. I also hope many readers will enjoy these “surprising connections,” especially those that extend parts of the “New England family” to Great Britain, Europe and perhaps beyond.
1. Edward III, King of England (1312-77, King 1327-77) = 1328 Philippa of Hainault (ca. 1312-69)2. Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence (1338-68) = (1) 1342 Elizabeth de Burgh (1332-63)3. Philippa Plantagenet (1355-78) = 1368 Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March (1352-81)4. Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1373-98) = ca. 1388 Eleanor Holand (ca. 1373-1405)5. Anne Mortimer (1390-1411) = ca. 1406 Richard Plantagenet. Earl of Cambridge (ca. 1376-1415), son of Edmund of Langley, Duke of York (& Isabel of Castile), son of Edward III, King of England (see above), & Philippa of Hainault6. Isabel Plantagenet (1409-84, aunt of Kings Edward IV & Richard III) (2) ca. 1426 Henry Bourchier, Count of Eu, 1st Earl of Essex (ca. 1404-83), son of William Bourchier, Count of Eu, & Anne Plantagenet, dau. of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester (& Eleanor Bohun), son of Edward III, King of England (see above), & Philippa of Hainault7. Sir William Bourchier, d. post 1482/3 = ante 1467 Anne Woodville, d. 1489, sister of Elizabeth Woodville, Queen Consort of Edward IV8. Cecily Bourchier, d. 1493 John Devereux, 8th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (ca. 1464-1501)9. Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford (ca. 1491-1558) = (1) ca. 1503 Mary Grey, d. 1537/810. Sir Richard Devereux, d. 1547 = Dorothy Hastings11. Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex (1539-76) = Lettice Knollys (ca. 1539/40-1634, who =  Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, favorite of Elizabeth 1),  dau. of Sir Francis Knollys & Catherine Cary, dau. of William Cary & Mary Boleyn, sister of Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of Henry VIII and mother of Elizabeth I12. Penelope Devereux (ca. 1561-1607), sister of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, favorite of Elizabeth I and leader of Essex’s Rebellion) = (1) 1581 Robert Rich, 1st Earl of Warwick (1559-1618/9), son of Robert Rich, 2nd Baron Rich (& Elizabeth Baldry), son of Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich, Lord Chancellor & Elizabeth Jenkes13. Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland (1590-1648/9) = ca. 1616 Isabel Cope (d. 1655), dau. of Sir Walter Cope & Dorothy Grenville, granddau. of Edward Cope (& Elizabeth Mohun) and Richard Grenville & Mary Giffard, great-granddau. of Sir Anthony Cope (& Jane Crews) and John Giffard (& Dorothy Dannett), great-great-granddau. of William Cope & Jane Spencer and of Roger Giffard & Mary Nanseglos, and great-great-great-granddau. of Sir John Spencer (son of Henry Spencer of Badby, Northamptonshire, d. 1477/8, & Isabella Lincoln) & Anne Empson (sister of Sir Richard Empson, minister of Henry VI) and of John Giffard & Agnes Winslow14. Frances Rich, d. 1672 = 1632 William Paget, 6th Baron Paget (1609-78), son of William Paget, 5th Baron Paget, & Lettice Knollys, dau. of Henry Knollys (son of Sir Francis Knollys & Catherine Cary above) & Margaret Cave, dau. of Sir Ambrose Cave (& Margaret Willingdon), son of Richard Cave & Margaret Saxby15. Penelope Paget = Philip Foley of Prestwood, Staffordshire, M.P., son of Thomas Foley of Witley Court, co. Worcester (1617-77) & Anne Browne, who are ancestors of H.M. Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (see Gerald Paget, The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, vol. 2 , p. 39, #s K1813-14)16. Paul Foley, M.P., d. 1739 = Elizabeth Turton17. Penelope Foley (1708-48) = 1734 Charles Howard of Lichfield (1707-71)18. Mary Howard (1740-70) = 1757 Erasmus Darwin of Derby (1731 -1802), physician and poet19. Robert Waning Darwin, M.D., of Shrewsbury (1766-1848) = 1796 Susanna Wedgwood (1765-1817), dau. of Josiah Wedgwood of Etrunia, the potter, & Sarah Wedgwood (his wife and third cousin)20. Charles Robert Darwin (1809-82) 1839 Emma Wedgwood (1808-96), a cousin and descendant of George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, brother of Kings Edward IV & Richard III, via the Pole, Stafford, Drury, Wray, Laugharne and Allen families
SOURCES for Darwin’s ancestry: Marquis of Ruvigny and Raineval, The Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal: The Isabel of Essex Volume (1908), tables I, II, VIII and IX, pp. 1-2, 9-10, 134-37, 508-9, 512,580-84; Burke’s Landed Gentry (henceforth BLG), 18th ad., vol. 1 (1965), pp. 187-88 (Darwin) and Burke’s Guide to the Royal Family (henceforth BGRF), 1st ed. (1973), pp. 198-201 (generations 1-6); G.E. Cokayne and Vicary Gibbs, ate, ads., The Complete Peerage (henceforth CP), 14 vols. (1910-59), 5:137-38, 140-41, 325-6, 6:478-79, 12, pt. 2:404-7, 6:538-40, 10:283-85 (Essex, Farmers of Chartley, Hereford, Warwick, Holland, Paget) and any recent Burke’s Peerage for Foley; Dictionary of National Biography (henceforth DNB), articles on Sir Francis Knollys, Sir Ambrose Cave and Sir Richard Empson; TAG 22 (1945-46):27-37 (Rich); F.E. Cope, Records of the Family of Cope (1901), Pp. 5-7, 10, and G.B. Roberts, Ancestors of American Presidents, preliminary ed. rev. (1989), p. 181 (Spencer chart) and passim (for presidential connections cited above); George Lipscomb, History and Antiquities of the County of Buckingham, vol. 1 (1847), p. 600 (Grenville) and The Register 75 (1921):135-37 (Giffard, reprinted in English Origins of New England Families from NEHGR, 1st ser. , 1:& 31-33). See also Josiah C. Wedgwood, A History of the Wedgwood Family (1908) and (with Joshua G.E. Wedgwood) Wedgwood Pedigrees (1925)
SOURCES for Darwin’s American kin: F.L. Weis and W.L. Sheppard, Jr., Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists 6th ed. (1988), lines 1, 228-29 (and TAG 18[1941-42]:210-18, for the West-Pelham immigrant cluster), 11 (Act. Gov. Jeremiah Clarke), 14 (the Marbury sisters), 43 (Rev. Wm. Sargent) and 29A (Mrs. Alice Freeman Thompson Parke), plus Weis and Sheppard with David Fam. The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215,4th ed. (1991), lines 71 (Randolphs), 85 (Skipwiths), 113A (Mrs. Anne Lovelace Gorsuch) and 122B (Nathaniel Browne); W.G. Davis, The Ancestry of Mary Isaac (1955), P. 178 (Wroth) and V.M. Meyer and J.F. Dorman, Adventurers of Purse and Person, Virginia, 1607-1624/5, 3rd ed. (1987), pp. 655-61 (West), 153-63 (Calvert), 401-8 (Lovelace); R.E.C. Waters, Genealogical Memoirs of the Extinct Family of Chester of Chicheley, vol. 1(1878), pp. 218-25, 238-43 (Maj. Robert Peyton), 73-80, 82-88, 93-97 (Cave to Clarke and Randolph, plus Burke’s Peerage for Cave-Browne-Cave and Skipwith, baronets); F.A. Crisp, Visitation of England and Wales, Notes, vol.6(1906), pp. 110-11 (Wm. Goddard; Register 145 (1991): 20-21 and W.T.J. Gun, Studies in Hereditary Ability (1928), pp. 122-27 (the Marbury sisters, Mrs. Spenser, Dryden and Swift); DL. Jacobus and E.F. Waterman, Hale, House and Related Families (1952, reprint 1978), pp. 721-26 (Wm. Pynchon).
1. James IV, King of Scots (1472/3-1513, King 1488-15132. (illegitimate by Agnes Stewart, later Countess of Bothwell, d. 1557) Janet or Joan Stewart, d. 1560-62/3, (contract [henceforth “cont.”]) 1523/4) Malcolm Fleming, 3rd Baron Fleming (ca. 1494-15473. Margaret Fleming, liv. 1584, = (2) (cont. 1557) John Stewart, 4th Earl of Atholl, d. 1579.4. Jean or Janet Stewart, d. 1593, = (cont. 1573) Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Bt., of Glenurchy (ca. 1550-1631)5. Sir Robert Campbell, 3rd Bt., of Glenurchy (ca. 1575-1657), = (cont. 1605) Isabel Mackintosh (ca. 1583-1 667), see below6. Isabella Campbell, = (cont. 1636) Sir James Campbell of Ardkinglass, M.P. 1646-49.7. Robert Campbell of Orchard, d. 1703 = Jean Campbell of Ardentinny8. John Campbell of Orchard (ca. 1682-1768) = Anne Campbell of Kinochtree9. Anne Campbell of Orchard (c.a. 1711-1782) = Rev. (Dr.) George Wishart (ca. 1702-1785), Dean of  the Chapel Royal in Scotland. Fergusia Wishart, b. 1709, a 1st cousin of Rev. George, married George Lockhart of Carnwath. Their son, James Lockhart-Wishart, 1st Count of Lockhart, a general in the army of the Holy Roman Emperor, was the maternal grandfather of Mrs. Louisa Ann Matilda Aufrere Barclay of New York City (a 4th cousin of Jenny Marx, herself the maternal grandmother of George Lockhart Rives (1849-1917), lawyer, historian, civic leader, and Assistant U.S. Secretary of State.10. Jane Wishart of Pittarow (1742-1811) 1765 Christian Heinrich Philip, Baron von Westphalen (1724-1792)11. Johann Ludwig, Baron von Westphalen (1770-1842) = (2) 1812 Caroline Heubel (1780-1856)12. Johanna (Jenny) Bertha Julie von Westphalen (1814-1881) = 1843 Karl Marx (1818-1883)
SOURCES: Sir J.B. Paul, The Scots Peerage (henceforth SP), 9 vols. (1904-14), 1:21-23 (James IV), 8:537-42 (Fleming, under Wigtown), 1:444-45 (Atholl), 2:184-200 (Campbell of Glenurchy, under Breadalbane) and CP 2:238 (Bothwell), 5:532 (Fleming), 1:314 (Atholl); William Fraser, The Lennox, vol. 2 (1874), p. 257 (for proof of the maternity of Jean or Janet Stewart, #4); G. Harvey Johnston, The Heraldry of the Campbells, vol. 2(1921), pp. 55-56 (Glenurchy), 13 (Ardkinglass), 21 (Orchard); research and notes of Andrew B.W. MacEwen of Stockton Springs, Maine, probably the prominent living genealogist of noble Scottish families; Rev. Charles Rogers, “Memoir of George Wishart, the Scottish Martyr,” in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 1st ser., 4 (1876)-352 esp.; Genealogists’ Magazine 19(1977-79): 23741 (Wishart to Mrs. Marx); Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels 64 (1977) (Adeligen Häuser B, vol. 12) 489-91 (Westphalen); Neil Rosenstein, Unbroken Chain, rev, ad., vol. 1(1990), pp.237-39 (Karl Marx and his descendants). For the Wishart-Rives connection see also Marquis of Ruvigny and Raineval, The Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal, Mortimer-Percy Volume, Part 1 (1911), p. 185 and BLG, 6th ed. (1882), p. 53.
1. Edward III, King of England (see above) = Philippa of Hainault2. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, d. 1399 = (3) Catherine de Roët3. (legitimized) John Beaufort, Marquess of Dorset and Somerset, d. 1410 Margaret Holand4. Joan Beaufort, d. 1445 = (1) James I, King of Scots; (2) Sir James Stewart, the “Black Knight of Lorne”5. (by 2) John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, d. 1512 = (2) Eleanor Sinclair6. John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Atholl, d. ca. 1521 = Janet Campbell7. Elizabeth Stewart = Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail, d. 15688. Agnes Mackenzie = Lachlan Mackintosh (16th Chief) of Mackintosh, d. 16069. Isabel Mackintosh (ca. 1583-1667) = Sir Robert Campbell, 3rd Bt., of Glenurchy (ca. 1575-1 657), see above9. William Mackintosh, 1st of Borlum, d. 1630 (bro. of Isabel) = Elizabeth Innes, dau. of Robert Innes, 4th of Innermarkie (& Jean Barclay), son of Robert Innes, 3rd of Innermarkie (& Margaret Innes), son of Robert Innes of Monycabok (& Marion Ogilvy), son of Robert Innes, 2nd of Innermarkie & Elspeth Stewart, dau. of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, above, & Eleanor Sinclair10. Lachlan Mackintosh, 2nd of Borlum, d. ca. 1661 = (2) Helen Gordon11. Col. Henry Mackintosh (McIntosh), d. 1725, of Boston, Mass. & Bristol, R.I. = Elizabeth Byfield12. Elizabeth Mackintosh (McIntosh) = (1) ca. 1721 Lachlan Mackintosh (McIntosh), d. 1723, also of Bristol, R.1. (see below)13,14. Elizabeth Mackintosh (McIntosh) (1722-70), = 1738 Isaac Royall, Jr. (ca. 1719-1781) of Medford, Mass.; Halifax, N.S.; & Kensington, Middlesex, loyalist and benefactor of Harvard College14,15. Elizabeth Royall = Sir William Pepperell (formerly Sparhawk), 1st Bt. , grandson of Sir William Pepperell, 1st Bt. (of the first creation), the hero of Louisburg15,16. Elizabeth Royall Pepperell = Rev. Henry Hutton16,17. Mary Anne Hutton = Rev. William Walford17,18. Edward Walford (1823-1897), English antiquary & genealogist, a 7th cousin once and twice removed of Jenny Marx = (1) Mary Holmes Gray (2) Julia Mary Christina Talbot11. William Mackintosh, 3rd of Borlum (elder bro. of Col. Henry), d. 1716 = Mary Baillie. Their 2nd son, Lachlan Mackintosh of Knocknagel, d. 1735, (1) Mary Lockhart and was the father of John Mor Mackintosh (McIntosh) (1700-61), founder of a noted Southern family and father himself (by Marjory Fraser) of Revolutionary General Lachlan McIntosh (1725-1806).12. William Mackintosh, 4th of Borlum = Mary Reade, d. ante 171313. Lachlan Mackintosh (McIntosh), d. 1723, also of Bristol, R.I. = ca. 1721 12 Elizabeth Mackintosh (McIntosh), 12 above
SOURCES: BGRF, pp. 198-200 (Edward III to Queen Joan Beaufort); SP 1:440-43 (Atholl), 7:499-500 (Mackenzie, under Seaforth); A.M. Mackintosh, The Mackintoshes and Clan Chattan (1903), pp. 141-92, 377-86 (and any recent Burke’s Peerage for Innes of Balvenie, baronets); Walter H. McIntosh, A Genealogical Record of Families in New England Bearing the Name McIntosh (1981), p. 40, and McIntosh, Mackintosh Families of Scotland and America (1982), pp. 26, 49-51; Gladys N. Hoover, The Elegant Royalls of Colonial New England (1974); DNB, article on Edward Walford (his matrilineal great-grandfather is here-in mistakenly identified as the hero of Louisburg).