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  • Notable Kin - Surprising Connections, #5: James Edward Oglethorpe, Henry Sampson of the Mayflower, Other Colonial Immigrants, and Kings of Italy

    Gary Boyd Roberts

    Published Date : April - May 1992

    Since publication in 1984 of American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales, co-authored by William Addams Reitwiesner and me, the genealogical community and to a lesser extent the general public has become familiar with at least some of the myriad kinships between Americans and the British royal family, especially the young Princes William and Henry. further underscored this awareness with addenda articles to the above book, and further coverage of the Virginia ancestry and noted Southern-derived cousins of H. M. Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, in NEXUS 2(1985): 125-27, 159-60, 4(1987):24-28, 8(1991 ):28-31. The genealogical community also knows that various colonial immigrants, descendants of Spanish “gateway ancestor” Sancha de Ayala (d. 1418, daughter of a mayor of Toledo and wife of an English knight, Sir Walter Blount, d. 1403) were fourth cousins various times removed of Ferdinand II, King of Aragon (and V, King of Castle), often called the first king of United Spain, husband of Queen Isabella of Castle and co-sponsor, with his wife, of Columbus’s “discovery of America.” See National Genealogical Society Quarterly 51 (1963):235-38, Lindsay L Brook, Studies in Genealogy and Family History in Tribute to Charles Evans (1989), pp.263-7l (both articles by Milton Rubincam) and my own charting of Sancha’s presidential descendants (Washington, the two Harrisons, Cleveland, F. D. Roosevelt, Ford, Bush and possibly Hoover) in Ancestors of American Presidents, preliminary ed., revised (1989, henceforth AAP), pp. 294-97.

    A third major link between the New World and European royalty, of which the genealogical community is largely unaware, is particularly appropriate for publication this year as the 500th anniversary of Columbus’s first voyage reminds us of Italian, as well as Spanish, contributions to American life. This surprising connection #5, also an addition of sorts to features in the December 1991 NEXUS on Boston Italian-Americans and the tracing of ancestors in Italy, is the descent of Italy’s four kings - Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel IIl and Umberto II, who reigned from Italy’s unification (actually 17 March 1861) until 1946 - from a sister of philanthropist and soldier James Edward Oglethorpe (1696-1785), the founder of Georgia. As outlined in detail below, Charles Albert, King of Sardinia 1831-49, father of Victor Emmanuel II and only a half second cousin twice removed of the preceding king of Sardinia, was the son of a prince of Carignano whose mother, a princess of Lorraine-Lambesc, was the daughter of a princess de Rohan-Rochefort of the French nobility. The mother of this last was Catherine Eléonore Eugenie de Bethisy, daughter of Oglethorpe’s sister Eleanor (ca. 1684-1775, in 1707) and her much older husband, the French general Eugene Marie de Bethisy, Marquis de Mézières (1656-1721). That the king of Sardinia during the revolutions of 1848 was a great-great-great-grandson of Oglethorpe’s sister is startling enough and certainly one of the most stunning examples of the descent of nineteenth- and twentieth-century continental figures from Jacobite, Irish, Scottish or “soldier of fortune” English forebears of the preceding 200 years (Oglethorpe’s mother was Anglo-Irish and his father, Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe, served James II and for a while followed him to France). But the consequent genealogical connections are much wider. Daughters of Victor Emmanuel II married Louis (Luiz) I, King of Portugal and the Prince Napoleon, head of “the Imperial House of France” (the Bonapartes); a daughter of Victor Emmanuel III married Boris III, King of the Bulgarians; Amadeus I, King of Spain 1870-73, a younger son of Victor Emmanuel II, is a great-great-grandfather of Archduke Lorenz of Austria, husband of Princess Astrid of Belgium (niece of King Baudouin) and father of three children now recognized as princes of Belgium and heirs to its throne; and another princess de Rohan-Rochefort of Oglethorpe descent married a prince Reuss zu Greiz and was the maternal grandmother of Eleonore, Princess Reuss-Köstriiz, second wife of Ferdinand II, King of the Bulgarians. Thus kings of Portugal from 1862 to 1910 were also Oglethorpe descendants or the husbands of such descendants, as were kings of the Bulgarians 1908-18, 1930-46 and heads of the house of Bonaparte since 1879, and as are three current princes or princesses of Belgium - the only Oglethorpe descendants now in line to an existing European crown.

    In addition, James Edward Oglethorpe’s paternal grandfather, Sutton Oglethorpe (b. 1612), was a cousin of numerous seventeenth-century immigrants to the American colonies and a descendant of Edward I, King of England (d. 1307) through Suttons, Halls, Wingfields, Goushills, FitzAlans and Bohuns. Examining these kinships between Oglethorpe and various cousins much as we did connections between certain immigrants and ancestors of Charles Robert Darwin through the Foleys (see NEXUS 8:146-50) we can begin by noting that Oglethorpe forebears Sir William Calverley and Agnes Tempest were possible ancestors of Elder William Wentworth and Christopher [63] Lawson of Exeter, N H., and possible ancestors too of Constant and Thomas Southworth of Mass.; and Sir William’s parents, Walter Calverley and Elizabeth Markenfield, were ancestors of Mrs. Elizabeth Bosvile Harlakenden Pelham of Cambridge, Massachusetts, second wife of Harvard College treasurer Herbert Pelham. Sir John Rodney and Anne Crofts were great-great-grandparents of William Rodney, sometime of New York City (whose son, William Rodney of Delaware, was the grandfather of “signer” Caesar Rodney, Jr.) and ancestors also of Dr. John Strachey (1709-56) of Virginia. Edith Latimer, later Lady Mordaunt, was a great-great-great-grandmother by John Greene, her first husband, of Henry Sampson of the Mayflower, who was thus a half fourth cousin of Susan (Sutton) Oglethorpe, mother of Sutton and great-grandmother of James Edward and Eleanor. Among Henry Sampson’s living descendants, I might note, is First Lady Barbara (Pierce) Bush. The immigrant progeny of Richard Vere and Isabella Greene includes Acting Governor Jeremiah Clarke of Rhode Island and Henry Isham of Bermuda Hundred, Virginia, whose daughter, Mary Isham, wile of colonial official and Tidewater “ur-father” William Randolph of Turkey Island, was a great-grandmother of Thomas Jefferson.

    Francis Hall and Elizabeth Wingfield were great-great-grandparents of Mrs. Mary Bourchier Whitaker and great-great-great-grandparents of Sir Grey Skipwith, 3rd Bt., and his sister, Mrs. Diana Skipwith Dale, all three immigrants to Virginia. Sir John Wingfield and Elizabeth FitzLewis were great-grandparents of Edward Maria Wingfield, adventurer and first president of the Virginia colony, and ancestors also of Francis Dade of Virginia. Sir Henry Wingfield, brother of Sir John, was a great-great-great-grandfather of James Claypoole of Philadelphia (one of whose great-grandsons, John Claypoole, was the third husband of flagmaker Betsy Ross, born Elizabeth Griscom) and ancestor too of Thomas Wingfield of Virginia. Elizabeth Wingfield, sister of Sir John and Sir Henry, married Sir William Brandon and was both the paternal grandmother of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk (second husband of Princess Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII) and a great-great-great-grandmother of Dr. Richard Palgrave of Charlestown, Massachusetts, an ancestor of Presidents F. D. Roosevelt and G. H. W. Bush. As shown in “The Mowbray Connection,” my life’s work, now a manuscript in 23 volumes at the Society, the New York Public Library and the Society of Genealogists in London, American immigrant descendants of Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan (d. 1425), whose second and third husbands were Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and Sir Robert Goushill, number well over 100: 60-plus through daughters by Mowbray, and 40-plus, including some just listed, through daughters by Goushill.

    Outlined below, then, in a format similar to that used for the royal descents of Charles Robert Darwin and Mrs. Karl Marx - generation by generation, king to notable figure, with standard abbreviations, no places, dates in years only, full documentation and notes on descents from italicized ancestors of other American immigrants is the line from Edward I to James Edward Oglethorpe, and from Oglethorpe’s sister Eleanor to kings of Italy and Portugal, kings of the Bulgarians, heads of the house of Bonaparte, and princes of Belgium. For kings only first names by which they are known (usually translated into English) are given; for other royal figures all first names are included but names by which they were known are italicized. For sources, listed thereafter, I am once again much indebted to the splendid collection of continental works given to NEHGS by John Hutchinson Cook, and to conversations several years ago with Mr. Cook and the late John Insley Coddington in Bordentown, New Jersey.

    1. Edward I, King of England (1239-1307, King 1272-1307) (1) 1254 Eleanor of Castile (ca. 1244-90)
    2. Elizabeth Plantagenet (1282-1316) = (2) 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Essex (ca. 1276-1321/2)
    3. William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, d. 1360 = 1335 Elizabeth de Badlesmere, d. 1356
    4. Elizabeth de Bohun, d. 1385 = 1359 Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel (ca. 1346-1397)
    5. Elizabeth FitzAlan, dowager Duchess of Norfolk, d. 1425 (3) ca. 1401 Sir Robert Goushill (d. ante 1414)
    6. Elizabeth Goushill = (1) Sir Robert Wingfield (ca. 1403-ca. 1452), of Letheringham, Suffolk
    7. Sir John Wingfield (ca. 1425-81) of Letheringham Elizabeth FitzLewis
    8. Elizabeth Wingfield = Francis Hall of Grantham, Lincolnshire
    9. Alice Hall = (his first wife) Sir Henry Sutton of Averham, Notts., son of Sir Thomas Sutton (d. 1526) & Catherine Bassett, dau. of Sir Thorns Bassett & Margaret Meering. Mary Bassett, a sister of Catherine, married William Beaumont; their son Anthony Beaumont was the father (by Anne Armstrong) of Mary Beaumont, Countess of Buckingham, wife of Sir George Villiers, mother of royal favorite George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and ancestress of much of “the great Villiers connection” identified by Paul Bloomfield in Uncommon People (1955). Sir Henry Sutton and a later wife, Alice Harington, are ancestors of H. M. Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and H. M. The Queen. See Gerald Paget, The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R. H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, vol.2 (1977), #s M7695-96, pp.93 etc.
    10. William Sutton of Averham = Anne Rodney, dau. of John Rodney & Anne Mordaunt, granddau. of Walter Rodney (& Elizabeth Compton) and of John Mordaunt, 1st Baron Mordaunt & Elizabeth Vere, great-granddau. of Sir John Rodney & Anne Crafts, of Sir John Mordaunt & Edith Latimer, widow of John Greene, and of Sir Henry Vere & Elizabeth Tresham, and great-great-granddau. of Richard Vere & Isabella Greene.
    11. Sir William Sutton, b. ca. 1561 = 1584 Susan Cony, b. 1568
    12. Susan Sutton, sister of Robert Sutton, 1st Baron Lexinton = 1608 William Oglethorpe (1588-ca. 1629) of Oglethorpe, Yorkshire, son of William [64] Oglethorpe and Anne Sotheby, dau. of Robert Sotheby & Grace Vavasour, dau. of John Vavasour & Agnes Calverley, dau. of Sir William Calverley (& Alice Savile), son of Sir William Calverley (& Agnes Tempest), son of Walter Calverley & Elizabeth Markenfield
    13. Sutton Oglethorpe, b. 1612, of the city of York in 1665 = Frances Mathew
    14. Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe (1650-1702), M. P., soldier (see the Dictionary of National Biography ID.N.B.1) = Eleanor Wall, d. 1732, dau. of Richard Wall & Catherine Roche; for Eleanor’s ancestry and matrilineal descendants see Hubert Gallwey, The Wall Family in Ireland (1970), and W. A. Reitwiesner, “Matrilineal Descents of the European Royalty,” 3rd ed. (microfiche, 1991), Matrilineal Descent AFS.
    15. James Edward Oglethorpe (1696-1785), general, philanthropist, and founder of Georgia = 1743 Elizabeth Wright, d. 1787

    15. Eleanor Oglethorpe, sister of the founder of Georgia (ca. 1684-1775) = 1707 Eugene Marie de Bethisy. Marquis de Mézières (1656-1721)
    16. Catherine Eléonore Eugenie de Bethisy (1707-67) = 1722 Charles de Rohan., Prince de Montauban (1693-1766)
    17. Louise Julie Constance, Princess de Rohan-Rochefort (1734-1815) = 1748 Charles Louis of Lorraine, Prince of Lambesc, Count of Brionne (1725-61)
    18. Marie Thérèse Josèphe, Princess of Lorraine-Lambesc (1753-97) = 1768 Amadeus II (Vittorio Amedeo) of Savoy, Prince of Carignano (1743-80)
    19. Charles Emmuanuel (Carlo Emmanuele) of Savoy, Prince of Carignano (1770-1800) = 1797 Maria Christina Albertina Carolina Margaretha Xaviera, Princess of Saxony (1779-1851)
    20. Charles Albert, King of Sardinia (1798-1849, King 1831-49) = 1817 Maria Teresa Francisca Giuseppa Giovanna Benedetta of Tuscany, Archduchess of Austria (1801-55)
    21. Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia, (first) King of (a united) Italy (1820-78, King of Sardinia from 1849, of Italy from 1861) = (1) 1842 his first cousin Maria Adelaide Francesca Reniera Elisabetha Clotilda, Archduchess of Austria (1822-55), dau. of Rainer Joseph Johann Michael Franz Hieronymus, Archduke of Austria (1783-1853) (younger son of Leopold II. Holy Roman Emperor, & Maria Luisa, Infanta of Spain) and (=1820) Maria Francesca Elisabetta Charlotta Giuseppina, Princess of Savoy-Carignano (1800-56), dau. of 19 above
    22. Umberto I, King of Italy (1844-1900, King 1878-1900) = 1868 his first cousin Margherita Maria Teresa Giovanna, Princess of Savoy (1851-1926), dau. of Ferdinando Maria Alberto Amedeo Filberto Vincenzo, Duke of Genoa (1822-55), son of 20 above, & (=1850) Maria Elisabetta Massimiliana Ludovica Amelia Francesca Sophia Leopoldina Anna Battista Xaviera Nepomucena, Princess of Saxony (1830-1912)
    23. Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy (1869-1947, King 1900-46) = 1896 Elena, Princess of Montenegro (1873-1952), dau. of Nicholas (Nikola) I, King of Montenegro, & Milena Vukotic
    24. Umberto II, King of Italy (1904-83, King 9 May-13 June 1946) 1930 Marie José Charlotte Sophie Amélie Henriette Gabrielle, Princess of Belgium, b. 1906, dau. of Albert I, King of the Belgians, & Elisabeth Gabrielle Valerie Marie, Duchess in Bavaria

    24. Giovanna Elisabetta Antonia Romana Maria, Princess of Savoy, b. 1907, sister of Umberto II =1930 Boris III, King of the Bulgarians (1894-1943, King 191843), son of Ferdinand I, King of the Bulgarians (see below), & his first wife, Maria Luisa Pia Teresa Anna Ferdinanda Francesca Antonic4ta Margherita Giuseppina Carolina Bianca Lucia Apollonia, Princess of Bourbon-Parma
    25. Simeon II, King of the Bulgarians, b. 1937 (King 1943-46) = 1962 Dona Margarita Gómez-Acedo y Cejuela, b. 1935

    22. Amedeo Ferdinando Maria, 1st Duke of Aosta (1845-90), King of Spain as Amadeo I, 1870-73 (brother of Umberto I) (1) 1867 Maria Vittoria Carlotta Enrichetta Giovanna dal Pozzo (1847-76)
    23. Emanuele Filiberto Vittorio Eugenio Genova Giuseppe Maria, 2nd Duke of Aosta (1869-1931) = 1895 Hélène Louise Henriette, Princess of France (Orleans) (1871-1951)
    24. Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni, 3rd Duke of Aosta (1898-1942) = 1927 his first cousin, Anne Hélène Marie, Princess of France (Orleans) (b. 1906)
    25. Margherita Isabella Maria Vittoria Emanuella Elena Gennara, Princess of Savoy, b. 1930 = 1953 Robert Karl Ludwig Maximilian Michael Maria Anton Franz Ferdinand Joseph Otto Hubert Georg Pius Johannes Marcus d’Aviano, Archduke of Austria-Este, b. 1915, second son of Charles I, Emperor of Austria, & Zita Maria delle Grazie Adelgonda Micaela Raffaela Gabriella Giuseppina Antonia Luisa Agnese, Princess of Bourbon-Parma
    26. Lorenz Otto Carl Amadeus Thadeus Maria Pius Andreas Marcus d’Aviano, Archduke of Austria, b. 1955 = 1984 Astrid Josephine Charlotte Fabrizia Elisabeth Paola Marie, Princess of Belgium, b. 1962, dau. of Albert Felix Humbert Theodore Christian Eugene Made, Prince of Liege (& Paola Ruffo di Calabria), son of Leopold Ill, King of the Belgians, and Astrid Sofia Lovisa Thyra, Princess of Sweden.
    27. Amadeus Maria Josef Carl Pierre Philipp Paola Marcus d’Aviano, Archduke of Austria and Prince of Belgium (heir to the Belgian throne after the Prince of Liege, Prince Philippe [Astrid’s elder brother] and Astrid herself), b. 1986; Maria Laura Zita Beatrix Gerhard, Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Belgium, b. 1988; Joachim Carl-Maria Nikolaus Isabelle Marcus d’Aviano, Archduke of Austria and Prince of Belgium, b. 1991


    22. Maria Pia, Princess of Savoy (1847-1911), sister of Umberto I = 1862 Louis (Luiz) I, King of Portugal (1838-89, King 1861-89)
    23. Charles (Carlos) I, King of Portugal (1863-1908, king 1889-1908) = 1886 Marie Amélie Louise Helene, Princess of France (Orleans) (1865-1951), sister of Helene, Duchess of Aosta, above
    24. Manuel (Manoel) II, King of Portugal (1889-1932, king 1908-10) = 1913 Auguste Viktoria Wilhelmine Antonie Mathilde Ludovika Josephine Maria Elisabeth., Princess of Hohenzollern (1890-1966)

    22. Ludovica Teresa Maria Clotilde, Princess of Savoy (1843-1911), sister of Umberto 1 = 1859 Napoleon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, Prince Napoleon (1822-91), head of the imperial house of France, 1879-91, son of Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, & Friederike Catharina Sophie Dorothea, Princess of Württemburg, and nephew of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French
    23. Napoleon Victor Jérôme Frederic Bonaparte, Prince Napoleon (1862-1926), head of the imperial house of France, 1891-1926 = 1910 Clémentine Albertine Marie Léopoldine, Princess of Belgium (1872-1955), dau. of Leopold II, King of the Belgians, and Marie Henriette Anna, Archduchess of Austria
    24. Louis Jerome Victor Emmanuel Leopold Marie Bonaparte, Prince Napoleon, b. 1914, head of the imperial house of France since 1926 = 1949 Alix Marie Josèphe Therese Henriette de Foresta, b. 1926

    17. Charles Jules Armand, Prince de Rohan-Rochefort and de Montauban (1729-1811), brother of the Princess of Lambesc, = 1762 Marie Henriette Charlotte Dorothée d’Orléans-Rothelin (1744-after 1792)
    18. Charles Louis Gaspard, Prince de Rohan-Rochefort and de Montauban (1765-1 843) = 1780 Marie Louise Josephine, Princess de Rohan-Guéméné (1765-1839)
    19. Gasparine, Princess de Rohan-Rochefort and de Montauban (1798-1871) = 1822 Henry XIX, Prince Reuss zu Greiz (1790-1836)
    20. Luise Caroline, Princess Reuss zu Greiz (1822-75) = (2)1854 Henry IV, Prince Reuss-Köstritz (1821-94)
    21. Eleonore Caroline Gasparine Louise, Princess Reuss-Köstritz (1860-1917), 1908 (as his second wife) Ferdinand I, King of the Bulgarians (1861-1948, King 1908-18), see above

    SOURCES, Edward I to J. E. Oglethorpe, other Oglethorpe ancestors: F. L. Weis and W. L. Sheppard, Jr., Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists, 6th ed. (1988, henceforth AR6), lines 6, 15, Weis and Sheppard with David Farris, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, 4th ed. (1991, henceforth MCS4), lines 19 and 20 (generations 1-7), and G. E. Cokayne and Vicary Gibbs eds., The Complete Peerage, 14 vols. (1910-59), 6:467-72,9:664-67, 1:244-45, 9:601.4, 7:626-28 (Hereford, Northampton, Arundel, Norfolk, Lexinton); J. M. Wingfield, Some Records of the Wingfield Family (1925), pp. 7-22, chart at end; Rev. A. R. Maddison, ed., Lincolnshire Pedigrees, vol. 2 (Harleian Soc. Publications, Visitations Sen., henceforth HSPVS, vol. 51, 1903), pp. 441-42 (Hall); G. W. Marshall, ed., Visitations of the County of Nottingham .1569 and 1614 (HSPVS, vol.4, 1871), pp. 143 (Sutton), 42 (Bassett), plus John Throsby, Thoroton’s History of Nottinghamshire, vol. 3 (1797), pp. 188-89 (Basset) and any recent Burke’s Peerage (Beaumont, baronets); Sir Egerton Brydges, ed., Collins’s Peerage of England, vol.7(1812), pp. 557-58 (Rodney), F. A. Blaydes, ed., Visitations of Bedfordshire, 1566, 1582 and 1634 (HSPVS, vol. 19, 1884), pp. 40-42 (Mordaunt), and R. E. C. Waters, Genealogical Memoirs of the Extinct Family of Chester of Chicheley, vol. 1 (1878, henceforth Chester), pp. 50-51 and John Bridges and Rev. Peter Whalley, The History and Antiquities of Northhamptonshire, vol. 2 (1791), pp. 251-52 (Vera); J. W. Clay, ed., Dugdale’s Visitation of Yorkshire, with Additions (henceforth DVY), vol. 2 (1907), pp. 299-300 and Rev. Owen Manning and William Bray, History and Antiquities of the County of Surrey, vol. 1 (1804), p. 614 (Oglethorpe); D. N. B., articles for Sir Theophilus and J. E Oglethorpe; Joseph Foster, Pedigrees of the County Families of Yorkshire (1874), Sotheby (vol. 2) and Vavasour (vol. 1) pedigrees, and DVY, vol. 1 (1899), pp. 243-45 (Calverley).

    SOURCES, Eleanor Oglethorpe to European kings:
    le Chevalier de Courcefles, Histoire Généalogique et Héreldique des Pairs de France, vol. 1 (1822), pp. 8-12 (do Bethisy); Pp. Anselme, Ange and Simplicien and Pol Potier de Courcy, Histoire Généalogique et Chrotrologique de La Maison Royale de France, vol. 9, part 2 (1873-81), pp. 204-5 (Rohan), 182-83 (Lorraine); Burke’s Royal Families of the World, vol. 1 (1977), chapters on Italy, Bulgaria, Austria, Belgium, Portugal, France (Bonaparte), Reuss, etc., plus Euoropäische Stammtafeln, new ser., asp. vols. 10 (1986), tables 18, 19 (Rohan), 6 (1978), tab. 135 (Lorraine-Lambesc), 2(1984), tab. 197, 198 (Italy) and Genealogisches Handbuch des Adles, Fürstliche Häuser (1951-). For descendants of J. E. Oglethorpe’s second sister, Frances Charlotte, and Joseph François Noyel de Bellegarde, Marquis des Marches and de Cursinge (all via one granddau. and two great-grandchildren) see Comte F. Amédée de Foras, Armorial et Nobiliaire de l’Ancien Duché de Savoie, vol. 4 (1900), pp. 272-75.

    SOURCES, Immigrant cousins of Sutton Oglethorpe:
    AR6, lines 156, 9 and MCS4, lines 78, 87, 95, plus sources and caveats cited therein (Wentworth, Lawson, the Southworths, Mrs. Pelham); TAG 64(1989): 97-111 and G. E. McCracken, The Welcome Claimants (1970), pp.439-60 (Rodney); CR. Sanders, The Strachey Family, 1588-1932 (1953), pp. 41-62, 296-97 (Dr. John Strachey); The Genealogist 6 (1985): 166-86 (H. Sampson); Rhode Island Roots 15 (1989): 41-43, Chester, pp. 49-51, 55-62, 67, 82-88, 93-97, 108-10 and AR6, line 11 (Act. Gov. Jeremiah Clarke); E. P. Isham, An Index of the Ishams in England and America (1984), pp 14-18, 25-26, 32, 37-40 (Henry Isham); MCS4, lines 73, 85 (Mrs. Whitaker, Skipwith, Mrs. Dale), 20, 21 (Wingfields), plus Genealogies of Va. Families from the Va. Mag. of Hist. and Biog. (1981), 5:822-26 (Wingfields), 2:657-63 (Dade); TAG 67 (1992): 97-1 07 and E. C . Bracken, The Claypoole Family in America, vol. 1(1971), pp. 6-13, 26-27 (James Claypoole and Betsy Ross); AR6, line 15 (Palgrave). For the Sampson descent of Mrs. Bush see The Mayflower Descendant 41 (1991): 4-5; for the Isham line of Jefferson and Palgrave descents of FDR and Bush see AAP, pp. 139-40, 157-58, 162,240.

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