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  • Notable Kin - Nineteenth-Century Heroines, Part Two: Reform, Religion, Education and Women’s Clubs

    Gary Boyd Roberts

    Published Date : December 1990
     Having considered largely literary and feminist figures in the last “Notable Kin” column, I now wish to treat a second set of nineteenth-century “heroines,” founders or leaders in reform Christian Science, women’s higher education, the volunteer movement, and charity.  These seven “new” figures are humanitarian and asylum reformer Dorothea Lynde Dix, temperance leader Frances Elizabeth Caroline Willard, Red Cross founder Clarissa Harlowe “Clara” Barton, Christian Science founder (Mrs.) Mary [Morse] Baker (Glover) (Patterson) Eddy, educators (Mrs.) Emma Hart Willard and Mary Lyon, and feminist and clubwoman (Mrs.) Julia Ward Howe, author of “Battle Hymn of the Republic.”  Dix and Barton, like Florence Nightingale, may be considered founders of the profession of nursing; Dix and Frances Willard, champions of the mentally ill and of “Home Protection,” can be seen certainly as precursors, if not founders, of social work; and much in Mrs. Eddy’s Science and Health (including most basically, perhaps, the interest in healing) can be viewed as supportive of modem psychotherapy.  Emma Willard founded the Troy Female Seminary and Mary Lyon, Mount Holyoke College, oldest of the “Seven Sisters.” Frances Willard and Mrs. Howe were both also noted suffragists, and “Battle Hymn of the Republic” was almost a “Dixie” for the North.  As head of the New England Women’s Club, moreover, Mrs. Howe not only championed “culture” over fashion or money; she can also be seen as a forebear of the major legacy of early women’s clubs - the volunteer movement and perhaps even organized charity.

    Born between 1787 and 1839 (average year 1812), these seven figures were natives of Oxford (Barton) and Buckland (Lyon), Massachusetts; Berlin, Connecticut (Mrs. Willard); Bow, New Hampshire (Mrs. Eddy); Hampden, Maine (Dix); Churchville, New York (Frances Willard); and New York City (Mrs. Howe).  Of the two New Yorkers Frances Willard, who later lived largely in Evanston, Illinois, was the daughter of natives of Dublin, New Hampshire and North Danville, Vermont; and Mrs. Howe, of natives of Warwick, Rhode Island, and Boston.  Boston or Cambridge were home, moreover, for Mrs. Howe, Dorothea Dix, and Mrs. Eddy.  Of these seven figures only Dix, Mrs. Willard and Mrs. Howe have very near relatives covered in the Dictionary of American Biography.  Mary Dix, the reformer’s aunt, married Thaddeus Mason Harris, Unitarian minister of the First Church of Dorchester (Mass.) and librarian of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Historical Society; their son, Thaddeus William Harris, was a pioneer entomologist and also librarian of Harvard.  Mrs. Willard’s sister, Mrs. Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps, wrote several popular elementary science textbooks, and this latter’s son (by Vermont judge John Phelps), Charles Edward Phelps, was a noted Union soldier, Maryland congressman, and jurist.

    Mrs. Howe, wife of abolitionist and reformer Samuel Gridley Howe and sister of lobbyist Samuel Ward (IV) (who married Emily Astor, granddaughter of the first John Jacob Astor and sister-in-law of society leader Mrs. Caroline Webster Schermerhorn Astor), was the daughter of Samuel Ward (III), noted New York banker, granddaughter of Revolutionary soldier and New York merchant Samuel Ward, Jr., and great- and great-great-granddaughter of William Greenes, Sr. and Jr., both governors of Rhode Island.  Mrs. Howe’s children included metallurgist Henry Marion Howe, author and lecturer Mrs. Florence Marion Howe Hall and author Mrs. Laura Elizabeth Howe Richards; sons-in-law (husbands of Julia and Maud Howe respectively) were Greek patriot Michael Anagnos, also a noted educator of the blind, and Scots painter John Elliott; a brother-in-law (husband of Louisa Cutler Ward) was the sculptor Thomas Crawford; a nephew was novelist and historian Francis Marion Crawford.  Great-nephews and great-nieces of Mrs. Howe induded the Chanler siblings - grandchildren of Emily (Astor) Ward - prominent in New York society and chronicled by Lately Thomas in A Pride of Lions (1971).

    Slightly more distant “Notable Kin” of these seven “heroines” included Hoke Smith, governor of Georgia, U.S. senator and Secretary of the Interior; a first cousin once removed of Mrs. Eddy; Sophia Smith, founder of Smith College, both a third cousin once removed and fourth cousin once removed of Mary Lyon; evangelist Dwight Lyman Moody, a third cousin once removed of Miss Lyon; and Samuel Ward McAllister, the New York society leader who first listed the “400,” a first cousin of Mrs. Howe.  A third cousin, third cousin once removed, and third cousin twice removed of Mrs. Howe, all through Clarkes and the Boston Mason family, were Alice Mason, Julia Amory Appleton and Emily Sears, wives respectively of U.S. senator Charles Sumner, architect Charles Follen McKim (of McKim, Mead and White), and U.S. senator and diplomat Henry Cabot Lodge II.  The novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne, Jr. was a fourth cousin once removed of Mrs. Howe, also through the Clarkes, and a matrilineal great-great-uncle of Mrs. Howe was South Carolina Revolutionary hero Francis Marion, the “Swamp Fox.”

    [209]

    Dorothea Lynde Dix was of royal descent via Mrs. Alice Freeman Thompson Parke, also an ancestress of Louisa May Alcott and of The Princess of Wales and her sons; shared Bigelow, Garfield, Gale and Moore ancestors with Clara Barton, Wheelock ancestors with Emily Dickinson, and Lord ancestors with Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was descended from John Dwight of Dedham, some of whose noted progeny (including four presidents of Yale and First Ladies Ellen Axson Wilson and Nancy Reagan) are briefly noted in NEXUS 5(1988):19-20; and via Shermans, Lords and Garfields was a distant kinswoman of Presidents Garfield, Taft, Hoover, Ford and Bush.  Other Sherman kin, as noted in earlier columns, include the 5th Earl of Rosebery, Sir Winston Churchill, the Countess of Avon (Lady Anthony Eden), Sir Robert Laird Borden, Harriet Beecher Stowe, James Russell Lowell, possibly Marilyn Monroe, and Susan B. Anthony.  Frances Elizabeth Caroline Willard, like Margaret Fuller in the last column, had no royal or Mayflower descent, no kinship to The Princess of Wales, no ancestor shared with two or more presidents, and no Salem “witch” connection.  One of Miss Willard’s great-grandfathers, James Lewis, is said to have been born in Oxfordshire, England; otherwise her paternal ancestry is associated most immediately with Harvard, Lancaster and Southborough, Massachusetts, plus several towns in New Hampshire; and her maternal ancestry with Durham, New Hampshire. Immigrant forebears of interest include Merrimack pioneer Simon Willard; this latter’s third wife, Mary Dunster, a near kinswoman of Rev. Henry Dunster, first president of Harvard College; and Governor Theophilus Eaton of the New Haven Colony.

    Clarissa Harlowe “Clara” Barton was a great-great-great-granddaughter of Mrs. Sarah Towne Bridges Cloyes, accused but not executed for witchcraft in Salem in 1692, a sister of the less fortunate victims (Mrs.) Rebecca (Towne) Nurse and (Mrs.) Mary (Towne) Estey.  Miss Barton shared Bigelow, Garfield, Gale and Moore ancestors with Dorothea Dix; Flint and Moulton ancestors with Margaret Fuller; Goodhues with Mary Baker Eddy; Whipples with Nathaniel Hawthorne, Jr., the Peabody sisters and Susan B. Anthony; Fiskes with Mary Lyon and Emily Dickinson; and Wilders with Mary Lyon.  Via Garfields, Whipples and Fiskes kinship can be traced also to Presidents Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, Coolidge, and FDR.  Note too that one-eighth of Miss Barton’s ancestry is unknown; her maternal grandfather, David Haven Stone, adopted by a stepfather, may have been illegitimate.

    Mrs. Mary [Morse] Baker (Glover) (Patterson) Eddy was one-quarter Scots-Irish, shared Goodhue forebears with Clara Barton, and via Farnums or Chandlers was a distant kinswoman of Presidents Hayes, FDR, and Ford.  Through a possible Brewer descent, moreover, kinship might also be traced to Presidents Pierce, Hayes, and Bush, and to Louisa May Alcott. Mrs. Emma Hart Willard shares her patrilineal immigrant ancestor, Stephen Hart of Farmington, Connecticut, with The Princess of Wales and Princes William and Henry. Via Hookers, Stanleys, or Robert White and Bridget Allgar, moreover, Mrs. Willard was a distant kinswoman of Presidents Fillmore, Grant, Cleveland, Taft, Coolidge FDR, Ford and Bush, and through John White of Hartford (son of Robert and Bridget), of Emily Dickinson.

    Mary Lyon, like Emily Dickinson, Margaret Fuller and Susan B. Anthony, was descended from the immigrant William Ward of Sudbury, Massachusetts.  Miss Lyon shared Deming ancestors with Louisa May Alcot Smith, Morse and Fiske forebears with Emily Dickinson; and Fiskes and Wilders with Clara Barton.  Presidential kinsmen, via Samuel Smith of South Hadley, Morses, and Fiskes include Hayes, Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, Taft, Coolidge, Nixon and Bush. Another ancestor was a sister of Governor Robert Treat of Connecticut.  One-fourth of Miss Lyon’s ancestry remains unknown; the origins of her paternal grandfather, Aaron Lyon (ca. 1730-post 1798) of Sturbridge, Massachusetts, seem as yet undetermined.

    Mrs. Julia Ward Howe was twice descended from Rhode Island founder Roger Williams (an ancestor also of the progenies of Cornelius Vanderbilt II and John Davison Rockefeller, Jr.); shared Mrs. Frances Latham Dungan Clarke Vaughan, often called the “ur-mother” of Rhode Island governors, with Susan B. Anthony; shares John and Elizabeth (Thompson) Cogswell of Ipswich, Massachusetts, with The Princess of Wales and her sons (a kinship here noted, I believe, for the first time in print); and was descended also from Samuel Gorton, founder of Warwick, R.I. Presidential cousin via Greenes, Almys and Cogswells, include the two Adamses, Taft, Harding, Coolidge, Nixon and Carter. Mrs. Howe’s maternal grandmother was a South Carolinian at least half of whose ancestry was largely French Huguenot.

    Of the 16 prominent nineteenth-century women traced in this column and its immediate predecessor, four (Alcott, Anthony, Mrs. Stanton and Dix) were of royal descent; six (Alcott, Dickinson, Anthony, Dix, Mrs. Willard and Mrs. Howe) share ancestors with The Princess of Wales and her sons; three (the Peabody sisters, via Alden) were “Mayflower descendants”; and four (the Peabody sisters, via Proctor and probably Martin, and Barton, via Towne) had Salem “witch” connections.  All but two (Fuller and Frances Willard) were descended from couples or forebears ii the ancestry of two or more presidents and via almos entirely these ancestors Dickinson had at least 12 presidential cousins (the eleven noted in the last column plus, via English Fiskes as covered under Mary Lyon, Benjamin Harrison), Anthony ten, and Alcott, the Peabody sisters, Mrs. Stanton, Dix, Mrs. Eddy, Mrs. Willard, Lyon and Mrs. Howe five, six, seven or eight. Only two of these 16 - Mrs. Mutt and Frances Willard - share no ancestry herein treated with any of the others.  Barton shared such forebears with at least nine other “heroines”; Anthony with eight; Dickinson with seven; Lyon with five; Alcott, Fuller, the Peabody sisters, and Dix, with four each; and Mrs. Stanton, Mrs. Willard and Mrs. Howe, with one each (for these counts the Peabody sisters were considered three figures, not just one). Since I trace [210] the ancestry of these figures for only five generations, plus extensions to forebears largely encountered elsewhere, I may have overworked a few remoter relationships among these sixteen, but once again the intricacy of kinship within the “New England family” by the early nineteenth century is obvious.  Outlined below, in the usual format for this column, is the known ancestry of these seven additional “heroines” for five generations (parents, grandparents and great- and great-great grandparents, following the figure and her birth and death years, with semi-colons separating generations and commas separating couples in the same generation from the figure), with extensions to earlier generations to include all ancestors mentioned above. For Frances Willard, both of whose parents were also born in the nineteenth century, the following outline covers six generations rather than five.  As before, “RD” indicates an ancestor of royal descent, “MP” a Mayflower passenger, “PW” an ancestor shared with The Princess of Wales, “TP” an ancestor of two or three presidents (as charted in Ancestors of American Presidents [19891) and “FP” an ancestor of four or five presidents.

    1. DOROTHEA LYNDE DIX, 1802-1887; Joseph Dix & Mary Bigelow; Elijah Dix & Dorothy Lynde, Charles Bigelow & Lucy Bennett; James Dix & Sarah Bond, Joseph Lynde & Mary Lemmon, Joseph Bigelow & Martha Brigham, Jonathan Bennett & Martha Harris; John Dix, Jr. & Martha Lawrence, William Bond (III) & Hannah Cunnable, Nicholas Lynde & Dorothy Stanton, Joseph Lemmon, Jr. & Elizabeth Phillips, John Bigelow & Jerusha Garfield, Gershom Brigham & Mehitable Warren, Samuel Bennett & Mary,Edmund Harris & Elizabeth ; John Dix & Elizabeth Barnard, George Lawrence & Elizabeth Crispe, Thomas Stanton, Jr. & Sarah Denison, Eleazer Phillips & Anne Foster, Samuel Bigelow & Mary Flagg, Joseph Garfield & Sarah Gale, Thomas Brigham, Jr. & Mary Rice, Joseph Warren & Experience Wheelock; John Barnard & Phebe Whiting, Benjamin Crispe & Bridget (parents of Mary Crispe, wife of William Green and mother of Elizabeth Green, wife of John Cady and great-great-grandmother of Mrs. Elizabeth Smith Cady Stanton), Thomas Stanton & Anne Lord, George Denison & Bridget Thompson, Henry Phillips & Mary Dwight, John Bigelow & Mary Warren, Edward Garfield, Jr. & Rebecca ___, Richard Gale & Mary ___, Henry Rice & Elizabeth Moore, Ralph Wheelock & Rebecca ___, (parents of Record Wheelock, wife of Increase Ward and ancestress of Emily Dickinson); Anthony Whiting & Anne Sherman, Thomas Lord (TP) & Dorothy Bird (TP), John Thompson (PW) & Alice Freeman (PW, RD), John Dwight & Hannah ___, John Moore & -; Henry Sherman (TP) & Susan Lawrence (TP); Henry Sherman (TP) & Agnes (Butter?) (TP).

    2. FRANCES ELIZABETH CAROLINE WILLARD, 1839-1898; Josiah Flint Willard & Mary Thompson Hill; Oliver Atherton Willard & Catherine Lewis, John Hill & Mary Thompson; Elijah Willard & Mary Atherton, James Lewis & Martha Collins, Samuel Hill, Jr. & Abigail Huckins, Nathaniel Thompson & Elizabeth Stevens; Abraham Willard, Jr. & Mary Haskell, Oliver Atherton & Rachel Godfrey, Ezekiel Collins & Rebecca Graves, Samuel Hill & Sarah Thompson, John Huckins & Abigail Edgerly, John Thompson, Jr. & Mary Davis, Hubbard Stevens & Mary Thompson; Abraham Willard & Mary Sawyer, Joseph Haskell, Jr. & Mary Woodward, Joseph Atherton & Hannah Rogers, James Godfrey & Hannah Haskell, Joseph Collins & Mariah Smith, Samuel Graves & Sarah Brewer, Nathaniel Hill & Sarah Nutter, John Thompson & Sarah Woodman (parents of Sarah, John, Jr., & Mary), Robert Huckins & Welthean Thomas, Thomas Edgerly, Jr. & Jane Whidden, John Stevens (III) & Dorothy Hubbard; Henry Willard, Jr. & Abigail Temple, Valentine Hill & Mary Eaton; Henry Willard & Mary Lakin, Gov. Theophilus Eaton of the New Haven Colony & Grace Hiller; Simon Willard & Mary Dunster.

    3. CLARISSA HARLOWE “CLARA” BARTON, 1821-1912: Stephen Barton, Jr. & Sarah Stone; Stephen Barton & Dorothy Moore, David Haven Stone & Sarah Treadwell; Edmund Barton & Anna Flint, Elijah Moore & Dorothy Learned, ___ Haven (?) & Esther Gale, Joseph Treadwell & Sarah Hammond; Samuel Barton & Hannah Bridges, Stephen Flint & Hannah Moulton, Richard Moore & Mary Collins, Ebenezer Learned & Deborah Haynes, Samuel Gale & Rebecca Underwood, Thomas Treadwell & Sarah Goodhue, David Hammond & Mary Platts; Edmund Bridges, Jr. & Sarah Towne, John Flint & Elizabeth ,Robert Moulton (III) & Mary Cooke, Jacob Moore & Elizabeth Loker, Isaac Learned, Jr. & Sarah Bigelow, Abraham Gale, Jr. & Rachel Parkhurst, John Underwood & Rebecca Shattuck, William Goodhue & Mary Lowden; William Towne & Joanna Blessing, Thomas Flint & Ann ___ (parents of Thomas Flint, Jr., who married Hannah Moulton, daughter of Robert Moulton, Jr. & Abigail Good, below, and was the father of Abigail Flint, wife of Henry Houlton and great-great-grandmother of [Sarah] Margaret Fuller, Marchesa d’Ossoli), Robert Moulton, Jr. & Abigail Good, John Moore & Elizabeth Whale, John Bigelow & Mary Warren, Abraham Gale & Sarah Fiske, Joseph Underwood, Jr. & Elizabeth John Parkhurst & Abigail Garfield, Joseph Goodhue & Sarah Whipple; Richard Gale & Mary ___, Nathan Fiske & Susanna ___, Joseph Underwood & Mary Wilder, Edward Garfield, Jr. & Rebecca ___, John Whipple & Susanna ___; Geoffrey Fiske & Mary Cooke, Thomas Wilder & Martha Matthew Whipple (TP) & Joan ___ (TP); Robert Fiske (TP) & Sibilla Gold (TP); Richard Fiske (TP) & ___ (TP).

    4. (Mrs.) MARY [MORSE] BAKER (GLOVER) (PATTERSON) EDDY, 1821-1910; Mark Baker & Abigail Bernard Ambrose; Joseph Baker, Jr. & Marion Moor, Nathaniel Ambrose & Phebe Lovejoy; Joseph Baker & Hannah Lovewell, John Moor & Margaret Jack, Jonathan Ambrose & Abigail Goodhue, David Lovejoy & Elizabeth Chandler; Thomas Baker & Sarah Pike, John Lovewell (III) & Hannah ___, Henry Ambrose & Hannah Hoyt, Samuel Goodhue & Abigail Bartlett, Henry Lovejoy & Sarah Farnum, Zebediah Chandler & Sarah Abbott; Joseph Goodhue & Mercy Boynton, William Lovejoy & Mary Farnum, Ralph Farnum (III) & Sarah Sterling, John Chandler & Hannah Abbott, John Abbott & Sarah Barker, Thomas Farnum & Elizabeth Sibborn (parents of Mary), Ralph Farnum, Jr. & Elizabeth Holt (parents of Ralph III), Thomas Chandler & Hannah Brewer, George Abbott & Hannah Chandler (parents of Hannah & John); Ralph Farnum (TP) & Alice ___ (TP) (parents of Thomas & Ralph, Jr.), William Chandler (TP) & Annis Bayford (TP), (parents of Thomas & Hannah), (possibly) Daniel Brewer (TP) & Joanna (TP).

    [211]

    5.    (Mrs.) EMMA HART WILLARD, 1787-1870; Samuel Hart, Jr. & Lydia Hinsdale; Samuel Hart & Mary Hooker, John Hinsdale & Elizabeth Cole; John Hart, Jr. & Mary Moore, John Hooker & Abigail Stanley, Barnabas Hinsdale, Jr. & Martha Smith, Nathaniel Cole, Jr. & Elizabeth Knight; John Hart & Sarah ___, Isaac Moore & Ruth Stanley, Samuel Hooker & Mary Willett, John Stanley, Jr. & Sarah Fletcher, Barnabas Hinsdale & Sarah White, Joseph Smith & Lydia Huit, Nathaniel Cole & Lydia Davis, George Knight & Sarah Church; Stephen Hart (PW) & ___ (PW), John Stanley & (parents of Ruth & John, Jr.), Rev. Thomas Hooker (Jr.) & Susanna Garbrand, John White & Mary (Leavitt?); John Stanley (TP) & Susan Lancock (TP), Thomas Hooker (TP) & ___ (TP), Robert White (FP) & Bridget Allgar (FP).

    6. MARY LYON, 1797-1849; Aaron Lyon, Jr. & Jemima Shepard; Aaron Lyon & Mary Mason, Isaac Shepard (Ill) & Jemima Smith; Jonathan Mason & Hepzibah Morse, Isaac Shepard, Jr. & Sarah Cheney, Chilcab Smith & Sarah Moody; John Mason & Elizabeth Clarke, Noah Morse & Mary Johnson, Isaac Shepard & Elizabeth Fuller, John Cheney & Elizabeth Seger, Preserved Smith & Mary Smith, Ebenezer Moody & Editha ; Ephraim Clarke & Mary Bullen, Daniel Morse, Jr. & Elizabeth Barbour, Thomas Shepard & Hannah Ensign, Joshua Fuller & Elizabeth Ward, Chileab Smith & Hannah Hitchcock (parents of Mary), Samuel Moody & Mary Deming; Samuel Bullen & Mary Morse, Daniel Morse & Lydia Fisher, Thomas Ensign & Elizabeth Wilder, John Ward & Hannah Jackson, Samuel Smith CUP) & Elizabeth Smith (TP), John Dewing & Honor Treat, sister of Gov. Robert Treat of Conn. (parents of David Deming, father by Mary of Martha Deming, wife of Henry Howell and mother of Martha Howell, wife of Joseph Williams, Jr. & great-great-grandmother of Louisa May Alcott); Samuel Morse CUP) & Elizabeth Jasper (UP) (parents of Mary & Daniel), Anthony Fisher & Mary , Thomas Wilder & Martha William Ward & Thomas Morse (TP) & Margaret King (TP), - Fisher & Mary Fiske; Thomas Morse (Fp) & Agnes (Fp), Nicholas Fiske (TP) & (TP); Richard Fiske (TP) & (TP).

    7. (Mrs.) JULIA WARD HOWE, 1819-1910; Samuel Ward (III) & Julia Rush Cutler; Samuel Ward, Jr. & Phebe Greene, Benjamin Clarke Cutler & Sarah Mitchell; Samuel Ward & Anna Ray, Coy. William Greene, Jr. of R.I. & Catharine Ray, John Cutler & Mary Clarke, Thomas Mitchell & Esther Marion (sister of Francis Marion, the “Swamp Fox”); Richard Ward & Mary Tillinghast, Simon Ray (III) & Deborah Greene (parents of Anna & Catharine), Gov. William Greene of R.I. & Catharine Greene, David Cutler & Anne Miller, Benjamin Clarke & Miriam Kilby, Gabriel Marion & Esther Cordes; John Tillinghast & Isabel Sayles, Job Greene & Phebe Sayles (parents of Deborah), Samuel Greene & Mary Gorton (parents of Gov. William), Benjamin Greene & Susannah Holden (parents of Catharine), Thomas Clarke (III) & John Sayles & Mary Williams (parents of Isabel & Phebe), John Greene, Jr. & Anne Almy (parents of Job & Samuel), Benjamin Gorton & Sarah Carder, Thomas Greene & Elizabeth Barton (parents of Benjamin), Randall Holden & Frances Dungan, Thomas Clarke, Jr. & Abigail Cogswell; Roger Williams & Mary Barnard, John 2   Greene & Joan Tattersall (parents of John, Jr., & Thomas), William Almy (TP) & Audrey Barlow (UP), Samuel Gorton & Mary Maplett, William Dungan & Frances Latham, John Cogswell (PW,TP) & Elizabeth Thompson (PW,TP); Richard Greene (TP) & Mary Hooker CUP).

    SOURCES:

    1.    Dix: James E. Dix, Genealogies and Histories of Five Yankee Families: Dix and Chester, Chase, Hood and Woodbury (1982), pp. 16-32, 41-51 (Dix); Henry Bond, Genealogies of the Families and Descendants of the Early Settlers of Watertown, Massachusetts, 2nd ed. (1860, henceforth BW), Dix, Barnard, Lawrence, Crispe, Bond, Biscoe, Hastings, Bigelow, Warren, Flagg, Garfield and Gale sections, plus B.L. Stratton, Transatlantic Shermans (1969), passim, pp. 96-97 esp., and F.C. Warner, “The Ancestry of Samuel, Freda and John Warner” (1949, typescript at NEHGS) pp. 156-57, 264-65 (Crispe, Green to Mrs. Stanton); T.B. Wyman The Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown, Massachusetts, 1629-1818 (1879, reprint 1982), Lynde, Davison, Lemmon, Bradley, Phillips, Foster, and Brackenbury sections, plus W.A. Stanton, A Record...of Thomas Stanton of Connecticut and His Descendants, 1635-1891 (1891), pp. 65-66, 77-82, Kenneth Lord, Genealogy of the Descendants of Thomas Lord (1946), pp. 1-6, 55-57, E.G. Dennon, J.M. Peck and D.L. Jacobus, Denison Genealogy (1963), pp. 1-2, Register 48(1894):421-23, 56(1902):153-55 (Dorothy Stanlon, reprinted in Genealogies of Connecticut Families from NEHGR) [1983], 3:427-32) and B.W. Dwight, The History of the Descendants of John Dwight of Dedham, Mass., vol. 1(1874), pp. 91-101; The Bigelow Society, Inc., The Bigelow Family Genealogy, vol. 1 (1986), pp. 8-10, 13-14, 25-27,47-48, 103-4; Rev. W.D. Bridge, Genealogy of the John Bridge Family in America, 1632-1924, rev. ed. (1924), p. 413 (Garfield); George Gale, The Gale Family Records (1866), pp. 23-33; W.I.T. Brigham, The History of the Brigham Family, vol. 1 (1907), pp. 33-59, 64-70, 87, 100 and W.L. Holman, Ancestry of Colonel John Harrington Stevens and His Wife Frances Helen Miller, vol. 2 (1952), pp. 109-53 (Rice, Frost, and Moore); W.S. Tilden, History of the Town of Medfield, Massachusetts, 1650-1886 (1887), pp. 505-7 (Warren, Wheelock); Register 56(1902): 241-42, 244-45 (Bennett); Lancaster VRs and L.F. Alexander, Descendants of William and Dorcas Fallass of Boston, Massachusetts (1929), p. 97 (Harris).

    2.       F. Willard: Willard Family Association of America, Inc., Descendants of Henry-2 Willard of Still River, Massachusetts (1989), pp. 1-5, 7, 13, 31, 75-76, 148, 244 and Frances E. Willard and M.B. Norton, A Great Mother: Sketches of Maclain Willard (1894), pp. 295-97 esp. (Willard and Hill outlines); Register 80(1926):86-95, reprinted in English Origins of New England Families, first series (1984, henceforth EO1) 2:133-42 (Dunster); Fred E. Sawyer, A Genealogical Dictionary of time Early Sawyer Families of New England ca. 1632-1900 (1983), pp. 195-96, 201; Ira J. Haskell, Chronicles of the Haskell Family (1943, reprint 1976), pp. 172-81, 201-2, 211; H.E. Woodward, Some Descendants of Nathaniel Woodward (1984), pp. 1-2, 4-5, 8-9; FL. Weis, Genealogical Notes Including [James Atherton of Lancaster...] (reprint, ca. 1944, from The Boston Transcript), pp. 1-2, H.S. Nourse, History of the Town of Harvard, Massachusetts, 1732-1893 (1894), pp. 537-38 and Harvard VRs (Atherton); Gloucester VRs (Godfrey); C.A. Bemis, History of the Town of Marlborough, Cheshire County, New Hampshire (1881, reprint 1974), pp. 557-58, 444-45, 447 [212] (Lewis, Collins); The Essex Genealogist 10(1990):145-52, 202-6 (Henry1 and Joseph Collins) and A.L.P. Collins and C.H. Pope, Henry Collins of Lynn (1916), pp. 1-7; K.V. Graves, Samuel Graves, 1630 Settler of Lynn, Massachusetts and his Descendants (Graves Family Genealogies, vol. 5) (1985), pp. 10-11, 15-16, 39-40; ES. Stackpole and W.S. Meserve,  History of the Town of Durham, New Hampshire, vol. 2 (1913), Hill, Thompson, Huckins, Edgerly and Stevens sections, plus pertinent entries in Sybil Noyes, C.T. Libby and W.G. Davis, Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire (1928-39, reprint 1972), Register 67(1913): 81-83, 180-81 (Huckins); D.L. Jacobus, Families of Ancient New Haven (1922-32, reprint 1974), p. 591 and Register 64(1910):88 (reprinted in E02 [1985], 2:342) (Eaton).

    3.    Barton Register 84(1930):400-8, 410, 414-17 (Barton); The Essex Antiquarian (henceforth EA) 12(1908):26 (Bridges); W.G. Davis, The Ancestry of Dudley Wildes (1959), pp. 111-14 Crowne); Sidney Perley, The History of Salem, Massachusetts, vol. 2, 1638-1670 (1926), pp. 276-78 (Flint); Kenneth Austin, “Moulton Family’ (1945), typescript, pp. for E, EA, and EAB; Register 57(1903): 300-4, 363-64 and W.L. Holman, op. cit. (see #1 above), pp. 147-53 (Moore); E.L. James, The Learned Family in America, 1630-1967 (1967), pp. 1-5, 7, 12-14, The Bigelow Society, Inc., op. cit. (see #1 above), Pp. 8-10, 16-17, and Frances Haynes, Walter Haynes and His Descendants, 1583-1928 (1929), pp. 57-60, 62-63; J.G. Bartlett, Simon Stone Genealogy (1926), pp. 85-86, Boston VRs (1754 marriage of William Stone and Esther Gale), George Gale, op. cit. (see #1 above), pp. 23-38, 40, 47-48, and BW, Fiske, Parkhurst, and Garfield sections, Register 87 (1933):367-74, 88(1934):142-46, 265-70, reprinted in EO1:2: 481-99 (Fiske); L.M. Underwood, The Underwood Families of America, vol. 1(1913), pp. 4-10; E.B. Sumner, Ancestry of Edward Wales Blake and Clarissa Matilda Glidden with 90 Allied Families (1948), pp. 265-66 (Wilder); Register 60(1906):48-50, 52, 192 (Treadwell); Rev. J.E. Goodhue, History and Genealogy of the Goodhue Family (1891), pp. 11-12, 14-15, 19; M.L. Holman, Ancestry of Charles Stinson Pillsbury and John Sargent Pillsbury (1938), pp. 43-48 (Whipple); F.S. Hammond, History and Genealogies of the Hammond Families in America, vol. 1 (1902), pp. 53-66, 72-75, 13941, 146-47, 156, 186-87; G.B. Blodgette and A.E. Jewett, Early Settlers of Rowley, Massachusetts (1933, reprint 1981), pp. 307-8 (Platts).

    4.    Mrs. Eddy: W.M. Clemens, The Ancestry of Mary Baker Eddy (1924) (a flawed work, basically in error on Pikes, Ambroses and Lovejoys); Records of the Pike Family Association of America, 1904 (1905), pp. 63-64, 75; E.S. Stearns, Early Generations of the Founders of Old Dunstable: Thirty Families (1911), Pp. 33-39 (Lovewell); P.P. Woodbury, Thomas Savage and William Patten, History of Bedford, New Hampshire from 1737 (1903), pp. 1005-6 (Moor); EA 3(1899):74 and KY. Richmond, John Hayes of Dover, vol. 1(1936), pp. 55-56 (Ambrose); D.W. Hoyt, A Genealogical History of the Hoyt, Haight and Hight Families (1871, reprint 1984), pp. 15-20, 23-24, 28, 35; Rev. J.E. Goodhue, op. cit. (see #3 above), Pp. 11-12, 15-16, 22-23, 38-39; GB. Blodgette and A.E. Jewett, op. cit. (see #3 above), p. 26 (Boynton); EA 7 (1903):1-3 (Bartlett); C.E. Lovejoy, The Lovejoy Genealogy (1930), pp. 51-57, 62-63, 73; H.R. Kluegel, Ancestors of William Morgan, 1769-1825, Pembroke, N.H. (1962), Lovejov, Osgood, Farnum, Seborne, Holt, Sterling, Chandler, Bayford, Abbott and Barker sections (plus “Farnum,” a revision of 1966-67); George Chandler, The Chandler Family (1883), pp. 1-11, 24-26, 62-63 and Register 85(1931) 133-45, 96(1942):301-2 (reprinted in EO1:2:354-66, 732-33) (Chandler, Bayford); M.W. Ferris, Dawes-Gates Ancestral Lines, vol. 1(1943), PP. 108-11 and TAG 56(1980):165, 168-6 (Brewer).

    5.    Mrs. Willard: Alfred Andrews, Genealogical History of Deacon Stephen Hart and His Descendants (1875), pp. 39-41, 43-44, 47, 55-56, 77-81; I.P. Warren, The Stanley Families of America (1887), pp. 30-35, 42-43 and Ernest Flagg, Genealogical Notes on the Founding of New England (1926, reprint 1973), pp. 272-73, 300-1, 341-43, 24849 (Stanley, Fletcher, Hooker); Edward Hooker, The Descendants of Rev. Thomas Hooker, Hartford, Connecticut, 1586-1908 (1909), PP. 3, 10-12, 19-22, 37, 61-62, 133-34 and NYGBR 48(19 17): 393-98, 64(1933):2 (Hooker); S.C. Hinsdale, H.C. Andrews, and A.L. Holrnan, Hinsdale Genealogy (1906), pp. 59-64, 69-70, 75-76, 95-96, 130 34; Dwight Brainerd and D.L. Jacobus, Ancestry of Thomas Chalmers Brainerd (1948), pp. 299-302 (White); L.H. Barbour, Families of Early Hartford, Connecticut (1977), pp. 543-44, 185 87, 109, 359, 171-72 (Smith, Cole, Davis, Knight, Church).

    6. Lyon A.B. and G.W.A. Lyon(s), Lyon Memorial: Massachusetts Families (1905), pp. 269-71, 274-76; W.S. Tilden, op. cit. (see #1 above), pp. 347, 339, 334 (Clark, Bullen); J.H. Morse and E.W. Leavitt, Morse Genealogy (1903, reprint 1979), Samuel Morse section, pp. 3-4, 7-9. 15-17, 32-33, P.A. Fisher, The Fisher Genealogy (1898), pp. 14, 6-10, and Register 83(1929):70-84, 27 94 (Morse), 87(1933):367-74, 88(1934): 142-46 (Fiske) (both sets reprinted in EO1 :2:262-92, 481-93; E.D. Barbour, Descendants of Captain George Barbour of Medfield (1907), vol. 1, pp. 1-2, 7-10, vol. 7, pp. 320-1; G.F. Shepard and D.L. Jacobus, The Shepard Families of New England, vol. 1(1971), pp. 14, 10-11, 24-25, 71, 161-62; E.B. Sumner, op. cit. (see #3 above), Pp. 216-19, 96-97, 265-66, 100-1, 252-54, 150-51 (Shepard, Ensign, Wilder, Fuller Ward, Jackson); C.H. Pope, The Cheney Genealogy (1897), PP. 199-217, 225-27, W.G. Davis, The Ancestry of Phebe Tilton (1947), Pp. 147-50, 179-81, 185-89 (Cheney, Bailey, Emery), and P.R. Ritter and The[ma Fleishman, Newton, Massachusetts, 1679 1779, A Biographical Directory (1982), p. 12 (for the identification of Elizabeth Seger); J.W. Hook, Lieut. Samuel Smith, His Children and One Line of Descendants and Related Families (1953), pp. 1-13, 22-33, 37-38 (including Sophia Smith); L.M. Boltwood, Genealogies of Hadley Families (1979, reprinted from Sylvester Judd, History of Hadley [1905]), p. 98 (Moody); F.C. Warner, op. cit. (see #1 above), Pp. 455-56, 168-69 (Moody, Deming); J.K. Deming, Genealogy of the Descendants of John Deming (1904), pp. 3-9, 12-14, and E.H. Ross, Descendants of Edward Howell (1968), pp. 12, 27 (Deming to L.M. Alcott).

    7.    Mrs. Howe: Clifford P. Monahon, Correspondence of Governor Samuel Ward... and Genealogy of the Ward Family (1952), pp. 211-12, 214, 216, 219-20, 223-24, 227; Ernest Flagg, op. cit. (see #5 above), pp. 151, 167-68, 197-200, 243-45 (Ward, Billings, Tow, Tillinghast, Sayles, Williams), Rose C. Tiilinghast, The Tillinghast Family, 1560-1971 (1972), PP. 5-7. 9-13, Judith A. Hurst, Sayles Country (1986), pp. 14749, B.W. Anthony and H.W. Weeden, Roger Williams of Providence, RI., 2 vols. (1949-66) (1:98 for Rockefeller, 2:31 for Vanderbilt), and TAG 28(1952): 199-209 [213]   (Williams); Register 86(1932): 324-30, reprinted in Genealogies of Rhode Island Families from NEHGR (1989):2:98-104 (Ray); G.S. Greene and LB. Clarke, The Greenes of Rhode Island (1903), pp. 38-40, 52-62, 66-68, 73-75, 82-83, 91, 100-2, 112-13, 175, 293-94; Register 71(1917): 310-22, reprinted in E02[1985]:1: 19-31 (Almy); T.A. Gorton, Samuel Gorton of Rhode Island and His Descendants (1985), pp. 57, 59; PA. Holden, “Family Record or Journal of Facts of the Holden Family of America” (mss. at R.I. Historical Society, photocopy at NEHGS, 1852-1910), pp. 1, 91, 139, 142, 316-20, 937; N.S. Cutler, A Cutler Memorial and Genealogical History (1889), pp. 563-66 and Boston VRs (1722 marriage of David Cutler and Ann Miller); Register 49(1895): 208-9, 69 (1915):89 and Ipswich VRs (Clarke); E.O. Jameson, The Cogswells in America, 1635-i 884 (1884), pp. 1-7, 18; TAG 27(1951): 193-96, 202-4 (Kilby); South Carolina Genealogies: Articles from the S.C. Historical (and Genealogical) Magazine (1983) 2:24-25, 27, 33, 46 (Mitchell, Marion, Cordes).

    8. Hoke Smith, D.L. Moody, Mrs. Sumner, Mrs. McKim, Mrs. Lodge, General: Rev. E.C. Cogswell, History of Nottingham, Deerfield, and Northwood, N.H. (1878), pp. 468-69 and Southern Historical Association, Memoirs of Georgia, vol. 1 (1895), p. 937 (Hoke Smith); A.P. Fitt, Moody Still Lives: Word Pictures of D.L. Moody (1936), chart between pp. 124-25; “Genealogical Notes of John B. Pierce Relating to Patrick6 Grant” (mss. in 9 vols. in NEHGS, 1960), pp. 373C-74C, 376-82A, 387-90, W.S. Appleton, A Genealogy of the Appleton Family (1874), p. 44 (for Mrs. McKim) and E.K. Taylor, The Lion and the Hare (1939), chart H (for Mrs. Cabot) (collectively the numerous Boston “Brahmin” kin of Mrs. Howe via Cutlers and Clarkes). For the royal descent of Mrs. Alice Freeman Thompson Parke, above-noted connections to The Princess of Wales and her sons, and presidential kinships to these “heroines” see respectively Register 141(1987):105 and sources cited therein, G.B. Roberts and W.A. Reitwiesner, American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales (1984) and GB. Roberts, Ancestors of American Presidents (preliminary edition revised, 1989).

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