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  • Foreign Prime Ministers or Presidents with New England - Derived Forebears or Wives: Part I - Canada

    Gary Boyd Roberts

     The current political campaign reminds me not only that the New England “family’ includes 20 U.S. Presidents - a fact that figures prominently in the volumes of presidential ancestor tables which I am now compiling.  The campaign reminds me also that this "family" extends to a sizable number of notable foreign figures, including prime ministers or presidents of Canada, Ireland, Great Britain and several countries on the continent.  In this column we shall consider the New England ancestry, and kinships to U.S. Presidents especially, of four pre-1975 Canadian prime ministers - Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet, Sir Robert Laird Borden, Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, and Lester Bowles Pearson; and of the wife of a fifth Canadian prime minister, John George Diefenbaker.  The next “Notable Kin” column will treat New England connections of British and continental prime ministers or presidents, including Erskine Hamilton Childers of Ireland, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Thomas Garrigue Masaryk of Czechoslovakia, plus new data on the matrilineal and other ancestry of Sir Winston Churchill, developed by Michael J. Wood of London.

    Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet, who capped a long ministerial career by serving as Canadian prime minister for several months in 1896, was a native of Amherst, Nova Scotia, and the grandson and great-grandson paternally of early settlers of Cornwallis who were formerly of Sandwich and Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Lebanon, Connecticut (Eliakim and Charles Tupper), and of Martha’s Vineyard and Rochester, Massachusetts (William West).  Earlier New England ancestors of note were Edward Raynsford of Boston among immigrants of royal descent, Governor Thomas Mayhew of Martha’s Vineyard (twice treated in the last Notable Kin column, an ancestor also of “Wild Bill” Hickok and “Mrs. Tom Thumb”), and Richard Warren of the Mayflower.  Warren was also an ancestor of presidents Ulysses S. Grant and F. D. Roosevelt, the latter Tupper’s fourth cousin twice removed through their common descent from Stephen Presbury of the Vineyard and Deborah Skiffe, Warren’s great-granddaughter.  Sir Charles Tupper’s wife, Frances Amelia Morse, also of New England ancestry, shares Hibbard and probably Gager and Gore forebears with The Princess of Wales and Princes William and Henry.  The Prime Minister’s second and third sons, Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper and William Johnston Tupper, were also  noted Canadian politicians; among their agnate American kinsmen was Earl Silas Tupper (1907-1983), the founder of “Tupperware.”

    Sir Robert Laird Borden,  Canadian prime minister, 1911-20, was a native of Grand Pré, Nova Scotia, the great, great-great, or great-great-great-grandson of several early New England settlers of Horton or Cornwallis (including Perry Borden, Joshua Ells, and Robert Denison), both a first and second cousin of Canadian defense minister Sir Frederick William Borden, and agnate kinsman of Texas milkman Gail Borden and alleged murderess Lizzie Borden, treated in the last two “Notable Kin” columns.  Belonging patrilineally to a well-known Rhode Island family, Sir R. L. Borden was also a fifth cousin once removed of F. D. Roosevelt through their common descent from Samuel and Mercy (Haughton) Bill of New London, Connecticut, shared with both FDR and U. S. Grant descent from Barnstable founder Rev. John Lathrop, shared with “Wild Bill” Hickok and “General Tom Thumb” descent from Mrs. Eglin Hatherly Downe Hanford, and like Hickok too was descended also from Rev. John Robinson, Pilgrim pastor of Leyden.  Probably the most interesting of Sir Robert’s forebears, however, are the Shermans of Dedham, County Essex, England, a family that produced a dozen or more immigrants to New England and has been splendidly studied by Bertha L. Stratton and Michael J. Wood.  Henry Sherman (d. 1590) of Dedham, forebear of this clan, was the grandfather of both 1) Edmund Sherman (Jr.), emigrant to Wethersfield, Connecticut, and ancestor by Joan (not Makin) of Borden and William Howard Taft, and (2) Samuel Sherman of Dedham, the immigrant’s half-brother, who remained in England and figures in the ancestry of Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, British prime minister, 1894-95.  Among Henry Sherman’s great-grandchildren, moreover, were the immigrant first cousins Philip Sherman of Portsmouth, first secretary of the Rhode Island colony and recently discovered by Mr. Wood, as we shall see in the next “Notable Kin” column, to be an ancestor of Jennie Jerome and Sir Winston Churchill, and Mrs. Phebe Whiting Barnard of Watertown, Massachusetts, an ancestor of Herbert Clark Hoover. Uniquely among Anglo-American families, to my knowledge at least, the Shermans of Dedham, Essex, are forebears of a Canadian prime minister, two British prime ministers, and two American presidents.

     [57]

    Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, Canadian prime minister, 1930-35, a native of Hopewell, New Brunswick, was a great-great-great-grandson, through his maternal grandfather, of Nathan Stiles, Jr., Abiel Peck, and David Hoar, pre-Loyalist settlers of Horton, Cumberland, or Onslow, Nova Scotia, who migrated respectively from Hebron, Connecticut, and Attleborough and Brimfield, Massachusetts.  Earlier New England forebears include John Hitchcock, Jr., and Mary Ball of Springfield, ancestors of Grover Cleveland, who is thus Bennett’s fourth cousin twice removed, and Hitchcock’s maternal grandparents, the immigrants Samuel and Cecily (Penny) Chapin, also ancestors of William Howard Taft. Other immigrant forebears were Samuel and Margaret Wright, ancestors of Cleveland and F. D. Roosevelt; and Mrs. Hannah Gore Gifford, sister of an ancestor of both The Princess of Wales and the wife of Sir Charles Tupper.  This connection of the Princess and her sons to a second Canadian prime minister is a recent discovery now reported for the first time.  Finally of note among Bennett’s New England-derived forebears are Thomas and Katherine (Duxford) Richardson of Westmill, Hertfordshire, parents of three immigrant brothers and ancestors of presidents Franklin Pierce and Calvin Coolidge.

    Lester Bowles Pearson, prime minister from 1963 to 1968, born in Newtonbrook, now part of Toronto, was of largely Irish Methodist background but “Grandfather Pearson ensured that my heritage should not be entirely Irish by marrying Hetty Marsh, a kindly lady who came from the village of Consecon in Prince Edward County at the other end of Lake Ontario.  She was of solid New England stock, on her mother’s side a Whittier.”  Abigail Whittier, mother of Hester Anne Marsh, was born in New Portland, Maine, in 1812.  Her father, Clarke Whittier, a native of Raymond, New Hampshire, was a third cousin of the poet John Greenleaf Whittier (both were great-great-grandsons of immigrants Thomas and Ruth [Green] Whittier) and a great-grandson of Steven Flanders, Jr., and Abigail Carter of Salisbury, Massachusetts. These last were also great-great-great-great-grandparents twice over of Chester Alan Arthur, who is thus Pearson’s double fifth cousin once removed.

    John George Diefenbaker, prime minister from 1957 to 1963 and the only Liberal among these five, married secondly in 1953 Mrs. Olive Evangeline Freeman Palmer, a native of Roland, Manitoba, whose parents were natives of Canning, Nova Scotia, and whose great-great or great-great-great-grandparents, all easily identified from readily available printed sources, were, in virtually every case, pre-Loyalist New England migrants to Liverpool, Granville, Cornwallis, or Horton.  Among Mrs. Diefenbaker’s 17th-century forebears were the royally descended Dr. Richard Palgrave and Constant Southworth of possible royal descent, Mayflower pilgrims William Brewster, John Howland, and Richard Warren, and Barnstable founder Rev. John Lathrop.  Of these six, Brewster was an ancestor of Zachary Taylor, and Warren and Lathrop, as already noted, were ancestors respectively of U. S. Grant, F. D. Roosevelt, and Sir Charles Tupper, and of Grant, FDR, and Sir R.L. Bordm.  John Howland was a forebear of FDR, his brother Henry a forebear of Nixon and Ford, and his brother Arthur a forebear of Jennie Jerome and Sir Winston Churchill.  Palgrave and Thomas Southworth, a brother of Constant, were also ancestors of FDR, who is thus a kinsman of Mrs. Diefenbaker several times over.  Other immigrant forebears of this Canadian “First Lady,” not shown below but readily-traceable from the cited sources, are John Whitman of Weymouth, an ancestor of Abraham Lincoln; the cousins Samuel and Joseph Morse, ancestors respectively of Taft and Coolidge and of Coolidge and Nixon; and Robert and Bridget (Allgar) White of Messing, Essex, parents of three immigrants to New England and ancestors of presidents Fillmore, Grant, Cleveland, and Ford.

    I wish to emphasize that except in the case of Mrs. Diefenbaker I was unable to trace all of the likely New England-derived ancestry of these Canadian prime ministers.  In particular my comments above are the result of thorough research in printed sources into only three-fourths of Tupper’s and Borden’s ancestry, one fourth of Bennett’s, an one-sixteenth of Pearson’s.  Thus much more can be written on this topic, and articles tracing Lavinia Fuller (Borden’s paternal grandmother), the patrilineal Bennett descent, or Abraham Marsh or Sally White among Pearson’s ancestors, would be especially welcome.

    The connections mentioned above are numerous and varied enough, however, to suggest the extent and complexity of New England ties to the Maritimes and to some degree American-Canadian kinship generally.  There are numerous other components to this kinship - Loyalist movements, Acadian links to Louisiana, American settlement of the Quebec “Eastern Townships,” French-Canadian migration to New England, and Scots-Canadian migration to the midwest, to name only a few.  Their exploration, this column, and the personal research of many library patrons has been much aided by a major grant to the Society from the William S. Donner Foundation.  The purpose of this grant was to enlarge our collection of Canadian genealogical materials.  Many books and microfilms have been purchased to date, and more still are due.  Before long we hope that virtually anyone with Canadian ancestry, especially both Canadian and New England ancestry, will find something of interest here.  Outlined below are the descents discussed abov of Tupper, Borden, Bennett, Pearson, and Mrs. [58] Diefenbaker.  The format is that used in earlier columns: the prime minister’s name, birth and death years (and parentheses for Mrs. Diefenbaker), parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc., backwards to the ancestors mentioned above, with semicolons separating generations and commas separating couples in the same generation. As always “RD” indicates an immigrant of royal descent, a Mayflower passenger, and “PW” an ancestor shared with The Princess of Wales.

    1.    SIR CHARLES TUPPER, 1ST BT., 1821-1915; Charles Tupper, Jr., & Miriam Lockhart; Charles Tupper & Elizabeth West; Eliakim Tupper, Jr., & Many Bassett, William West & Jane West; Eliakim Tupper & Joanna Fish, William Bassett IV & Abigail Bourne, Thomas West & Mary Presbury (parents of William); Thomas Tupper, Jr., & Martha Mayhew, William Bassett III & Rachel Williston, Stephen Presbury & Deborah Skiffe; Governor Thomas Mayhew & Jane (Gallyon), William Bassett, Jr., & Mary Raynsford, Stephen Skiffe & Lydia Snow; Edward Raynsford (RD) & ____, Anthony Snow & Abigail Warren; Richard Warren (MP) & Elizabeth ____

     2.    SIR ROBERT LAIRD BORDEN, 1854-1937; Andrew  Borden & Eunice Jane Laird; Perry Borden, Jr., & Lavinia Fuller, John Laird & Julia Lathrop; Perry Borden & Mary Ells, John Lathrop & Eunice Denison; Joshua Ells & Mary Bill, Benjamin Lathrop & Mercy Baker, Robert Denison & Prudence Sherman; James Bill & Mary Swodel, Hope Lathrop & Elizabeth Lathrop, John Baker & Anna Annable, David Sherman & Mercy Wheeler; Samuel Bill & Mercy Haughton, Joseph Lathrop & Mary Ansell (parents of Hope), Melatiah Lathrop & Sarah Farrar (parents of Elizabeth), Samuel Baker & Fear Robinson, Samuel Sherman & Sarah Mitchell; Rev. John Lathrop & Hannah House (parents of Joseph & Thomas), Thomas Lathrop & Sarah Learned (parents of Melatiah), Isaac Robinson & Margaret Hanford, Edmund Sherman & Joan ____; Rev. John Robinson & Bridget White, Jeffrey Hanford & Eglin Hatherly, sister of Timothy Hatherly of Scituate, Edmund Sherman & Anne Pellatte; Henry Sherman of Dedham, Essex & Agnes (Butter?).

     3.    RICHARD BEDFORD BENNETT, 1ST VISCOUNT BENNETT  1870-1947; Henry John Bennett & Henrietta Stiles; David Stiles & Mary Ann Wright; Elisha Stiles & Mary Hoar; Oliver Stiles & Rebecca Peck, David Hoar, Jr., & Ruth Lynds; Nathan Stiles, Jr., & Keziah Kilbourn, Abiel Peck & Ruth Skinner, David Hoar & Abigail Hitchcock; Nathan Stiles & Ruth Calkins, John Peck & Rebecca Richardson, John Hitchcock III & Abigail Stebbins; Samuel Calkins & Hannah Gifford, William Richardson & Rebecca Vinton, John Hitchcock, Jr., & Mary Ball, Samuel Stebbins & Abigail Brooks; Stephen Gifford & Hannah Gore, Stephen Richardson & Abigail Wyman, John Hitchcock & Hannah Chapm. Thomas Stebbins & Hannah Wright; Samuel Gore (PW) & (prob.) Elizabeth Hill (PW), Samuel Richardson & Joanna Thake, Francis Wyman & Abigail Read, Samuel Chapin & Cecily Penny, Samuel Wright & Margaret ____ Thomas Richardson & Katherine Duxford (parents of Samuel & Elizabeth), Francis Wyman & Elizabeth Richardson.

    4.    LESTER BOWLES PEARSON, 1897-1972; Edwin Arthur Pearson & Annie Sarah Bowles; Marmaduke L. Pearson & Hester Anne Marsh; Abraham Marsh & Abigail Whittier; Clarke Whittier & Sally White; Reuben Whittier, Jr., & Mary Flanders; Reuben Whittier & Deborah Pillsbury, Joseph Flanders & Mary ____; Nathaniel Whittier & Mary Stevens, Steven Flanders, Jr., & Abigail Carter; Thomas Whittier & Ruth Green.

    5.    JOHN GEORGE DIEFENBAKER, 1895-1979 (second  wife, Mrs. Olive Evangeline Freeman Palmer; Charles Bradford Freeman & Angie Adelia Eaton; David Freeman & Eliza Ann Parker, Stephen Woodworth Eaton & Adeline M. Sanford; Zoheth Freeman & Charlotte Parker, Abel Parker & Susan Jane Morse, Leonard Eaton & Elizabeth Eaton; Peleg Freeman & Hannah Deane, Nathaniel Parker & Salome Whitman, Daniel Morse & Jane Woodbury, Jacob Eaton & Mary Troop [parents of Elizabeth]; Simeon Freeman & Patience Wood, John Whitman, Jr., & Mary Foster, Abner Morse & Anna Church [parents of Daniel & Anna], Jacob Troop & Anna Morse; Elisha Freeman & Lydia Freeman, Jabez Wood & Hannah Nelson, John Whitman & Dorcas Green, Jonathan Church & Thankful Bullard; Samuel Freeman III & Bathsheba Lathrop [parents of Elisha], Nathaniel Freeman & Mary ____ [parents of Lydia], Thomas Nelson & Hope Huckins, Zachariah Whitman & Sarah Alcock, Isaac Church & Mary Hutchin; Samuel Freeman, Jr., & Mercy Southworth, Barnabas Lathrop & Susanna Clarke, John Freeman & Mary Prence [parents of Nathaniel], John Huckins & Hope Chipman, John Alcock & Sarah Palgrave, Caleb Church & Joanna Sprague; Constant Southworth [possible RD] & Elizabeth Collier, Rev. John Lathrop & Anne ____ [his second wife], Thomas Prence & Patience Brewster, John Chipman & Hope Howland, Dr. Richard Palgrave [RD] & Anna ____, Richard Church & Elizabeth Warren; William Brewster [MP] & Mary ____ [MP], John Howland [MP] & Elizabeth Tilley [MP], Richard Warren [MP] & Elizabeth ____.

    Sources:

    1.    Tupper: Dr. Eleanor Tupper, Tupper Genealogy, 1578- 1971 (1972), pp. 2-3, 10-12, 26-27, 72-74, 563-65; G.E. Banks, The History of Martha’s Vineyard. Dukes County, Massachusetts, Volume ///, Family Genealogies (1925, reprint, 1966), pp. 298-301 (Mayhew), 501, 504 (West), [59] 411 (Presbury), 433 (Skiffe); R.S. Wakefield, Janice A. Beebe & others, Richard Warren of the Mayflower and His Descendants for Four Generations (1987, a Mayflower Families In Progress, henceforth MFIP, pamphlet), pp. 1, 4, 21, 83 (Warren, Snow, Skiffe, Presbury); Belle Preston, Bassett-Preston Ancestors (1930), pp. 25-27 (Bassett); the Register 139 (1985):296-301 (Raynsford).

    2.    Borden: Henry Borden, ed., Robert Laird Borden, His Memoirs, vol. 1 (1938), pp. 1-2, and H.B. Weld, Historical and Genealogical Record of the Descendants of Richard and Joan Borden (1899), pp. 118-23, 140-42, 182, 239-40; Fred E. Crowell, New Englanders in Nova Scotia (microfilm, NEHGS, 1979), Borden and Bill entries (# 539 & 425), A. W. H. Eaton The History of Kings County, Nova Scotia (1910), pp. 579-82 (Borden), 659-60 (Ells), and J.V. Duncanson, Newport, Nova Scotia - A Rhode Island Township (1985), pp. 105-107 (Borden); Ledyard Bill, History of the Bill Family (1867), pp. 83-85, 127-29; Rev. E.B. Huntington, A Genealogical Memoir of the Lo-Lathrop Family (1884, reprint 1971), pp. 23-34, 38, 40-41, 45-46, 48-49, 63-65, 90-92, 124, and F. B. Dexter, Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College, Vol. II, 1745-1 763 (1896), pp. 760-61 (Rev. John Lathrop); Robinson Genealogical Society, Robinson Genealogy: Descendants of the Rev. John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrims (1926), pp. 7-37, 41-43 (Robinson, Baker, Lathrop); E. Glenn Denison, Denison Genealogy (1963), pp. 12-13, 32 (Denison, Lathrop, Laird); Roy V. Sherman, The New England Shermans (1974), pp. 169, 228, Bertha L. Stratton, Transatlantic Shermans (1969), and The American Genealogist (TAG) 61(1985-86):79-82.

    3.    Bennett: L.G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage, 1884-1971 (1973), pp. 24-25; Mrs. Mary Stiles (Paul) Guild, The Stiles Family in America (1892), pp. 177, 182-83, 202- 203, 231, 266; Mrs. Turney Sharps, "Genealogy of the Calkins Family" (1949?), #6, E.F. Waterman & D.L. Jacobus, The Waterman Family, vol. 1 (1939), pp. 661-62 (Gifford), and the Register 115(1961):253-54, 256 (Gore, reprinted in English Origins of New England Families, first series [1984], 3:779-80, 782); Daniel W. Hoare, Digest of Ancestry and Early History of the Hoar(e) Family and Descent of the New Brunswick Family from Charles Hoare of Gloucester, Eng. (1976), 6th and 7th generations, especially p. 2 of the latter; G.W. Chapin, The Chapin Book, vol. 1 (1924), pp. 2, 7, 27-28, 114 (Chapin. Hitchcock, Hoar); R.S. & R.L. Greenlee, The Stebbins Genealogy, vol. 1 (1904), pp. 60-74, 84-88, 137-38, and E.B. Sumner, Ancestry of Edward Wales Blake and Clarissa Matilda Glidden (1948), pp. 277-78 (Wright); Ira B. Peck, A Genealogical History of the Descendants of Joseph Peck (1868), pp. 137-38, 142-43, Boston Transcript Dec. 18, 1911, item 9264 (Peck, Richardson, Jones), J.A. Vinton, The Richardson Memorial (1876), pp. 183-85, 189, 202-203, W.G. Davis, The Ancestry of Sarah Hildreth (1958), pp. 25-27 (Richardson), and G.E. Wyman and R.W. Hubbard, Genealogy of the Wyman Family (1883), pp. 5, 8-10.

    4.    Pearson: L.B. Pearson, Mike: The Memoirs of the Right Honorable Lester B. Pearson, vol. 1, 1897-1948 (1972), p. 5 (on Hetty Marsh); C. C. & E. O. Whittier, The Descendants of Thomas Whittier and Ruth Green of Salisbury & Haverhill, Massachusetts (1937), pp. 15-17, 21-24, 32, 36-39, 59-60, 436-37, 449-50, 480, 518-19; Edith Flanders Dunbar, The Flanders Family From Europe to America (1935), pp. 24-26, 44-45, 75.

    5.    Mrs. Diefenbaken: Viva E. Freeman, Freeman Families of Nova Scotia, vol. 1(1986), pp. 18-19, 194, 391 -92, 398-99, 402-403, 442-46 (Freeman), 1232-33 (Southworth), 1227-30 (Prence), 1154-60 (Brewster), 1249-52 (Whitman); National Genealogical Society Quarterly 75(1987):109, 115 (on Mary , sometimes said to be Mary Howland, wife of Nathaniel Freeman); J.S. Wood, The Wood Family Index (1966), pp. 427, 231, W. Ripley Nelson, “The Nelson Family of Plymouth, Middleboro, and Lakeville, Massachusetts” (typescript, 1963), pp 37-44, 46, and M.A.S. Anderson, Ancestry and Posterity of Joseph Smith and Emma Hale (1929), pp. 449-50, 453 57, 461 -68 (Huckins, Chipman, Howland); R.W. Price, Rev. John Lothropp (1584-1653), A Puritan Biography & Genealogy (1984), pp. 26-27, 29-30; the Register 97(1943):12-14 (Alcock), 102(1 948):97-98 (Palgrave); E.D. Barbour, “Descendants of George Barbour” (typescript, 1907), vol. 6, pp. 2473-76, 2478, 2487, vol. 7, pp. 3760, 3762-63, 3581, 3602-3603, 3606 (Morse, Parker, Troop, Eaton), and John A. Church, Descendants of Richard Church of Plymouth, Mass. (1913), pp. 13-14, 34-35, 47, 76. See also the MFIP Richard Warren pamphlet, pp. 1, 3-4, 19, 80.  For the White lines see Dwight Brainerd and D.L. Jacobus, Ancestry of Thomas Chalmers Brainerd (1948), pp. 299-302, A.S. Kellogg, Memorials of Elder John White (1860), pp. 13-23, 25-28, 38-39, 54-55, and A. W. H. Eaton, The Eaton Family of Nova Scotia, 1760- 1929 (1929), pp. 37-40, 46, 55-56, 101, 147-48.  For the Morse lines see J.H. Morse and E.W. Leavitt, Morse Genealogy (1903, reprint 1979), Samuel Morse section, pp. 3-4, 7-9, 15-17, 32, 69-70, 149-50, and Joseph Morse section, pp. 1-3, and E.J. Bollard, Other Bullards (1928), p. 34.

    7.    General: For the royal descents of Edward Raynsford, Dr. Richard Palgrave, and possibly Constant Southworth, see the Register 141(1987):98 and F.L. Weis and W.L. Sheppard, Jr., Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists, 6th ed. (1988), lines 9 and 15.  For Tupper connections to The Princess of Wales, plus the Gore ancestry she shares with Bennett, see G. B. Roberts and W.A. Reitwiesner, American Ancestors and Cousins of The Princess of Wales (1984), pp. 21-32, 69.  For the various presidential kinships noted above see the ancestor tables published in The American Genealogist for Fillmore, Pierce, Grant, Taft, Coolidge, and Nixon, the sources for F. D. Roosevelt. Nixon and Ford listed in footnote 10 to the last “Notable -Kin” column, plus Eben. Putnam, New England Ancestry of Grover Cleveland (1892) and the 1904 Stebbins Genealogy (Cleveland to Wright), H. H. McLean, Genealogy of the Herbert Hoover Family (1967), the 1923 Lincoln and 1889 Whitman genealogies (Abraham Lincoln to John Whitman), the 1982 Stevens-Knauss and above-cited Flanders genealogies (Arthur), The Mayflower Quarterly 44(1978):39-44 (Zachary Taylor to William Brewster), the Register 115 (1961):192-93, 116(1962):30-31 (F. D. Roosevelt to Presbury), and TAG 61 (1985-86):175 (White), 178 (Morse, Howland).  For help with various Canadian lines reported herein I wish to thank Foster McC. Palmer, formerly of the Harvard University Library, who sent me charts he compiled on the Borden-Lathrop-Denison-Sherman ancestry; Anne Borden Harding former Associate Editor of the Register; Caroline Lewis Kardell, Historian General of the Society of Mayflower Descendants; Nova Scotia genealogist Terrence M. Punch; and Edwin G. Sanford of the Boston Public Library, Jerome E. Anderson of NEHGS, and Kenneth A. MacRae.

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